Congressional Research Service Reports - 86 Matching Results

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Drug Control: International Policy and Options

Description: Over the past decade, worldwide production of illicit drugs has risen dramatically: opium and marijuana production has roughly doubled and coca production tripled. Street prices of cocaine and heroin have fallen significantly in the past 20 years, reflecting increased availability. Despite apparent national political resolve to deal with the drug problem, inherent contradictions regularly appear between U.S. anti-drug policy and other national policy goals and concerns. The mix of competing domestic and international pressures and priorities has produced an ongoing series of disputes within and between the legislative and executive branches concerning U.S. international drug policy. One contentious issue has been the Congressionally-mandated certification process, an instrument designed to induce specified drug-exporting countries to prioritize or pay more attention to the fight against narcotics businesses.
Date: November 2, 2001
Creator: Perl, Raphael F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

F-22 Raptor Aircraft Program

Description: This report discusses the background information, analysis and the recent developments in the F-22 Raptor Aircraft Program. The F-22 program raises questions about its cost and the need for this aircraft, the capabilities it would have, and the number of these planes needed to meet military requirements. The F-22 has had strong congressional support, although some have criticized the program on grounds of cost, requirements, and coordination with other tactical aircraft programs. Deletion of procurement funds in the FY2000 defense appropriation bill passed by the House made the future of the program a major issue for House and Senate conferees in 1999.
Date: November 5, 2001
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Freedom of Speech and Press: Exceptions to the First Amendment

Description: The First Amendment to the United States Constitution provides that “Congress shall make no law . . . abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press. . . .” This language restricts government both more and less than it would if it were applied literally. It restricts government more in that it applies not only to Congress, but to all branches of the federal government, and to all branches of state and local government. It restricts government less in that it provides no protection to some types of speech and only limited protection to others. This report provides an overview of the major exceptions to the First Amendment — of the ways that the Supreme Court has interpreted the guarantee of freedom of speech and press to provide no protection or only limited protection for some types of speech.
Date: November 5, 2001
Creator: Cohen, Henry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

China's Foreign Conventional Arms Acquisitions: Background and Analysis

Description: This report examines the major, foreign conventional weapon systems that China has acquired or has committed to acquire since 1990, with particular attention to implications for U.S. security concerns. It is not the assumption of this report that China’s military, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), will engage in conflict with other forces in Asia. Nonetheless, since the mid-1990s, there has been increasing concern about China’s assertiveness in Asia and greater threats against Taiwan.
Date: November 6, 2001
Creator: Kan, Shirley A.; Bolkcom, Christopher & O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drug Certification Requirements and Proposed Congressional Modifications in 2001

Description: This report provides a brief summary of the existing drug certification requirements for drug producing and drug-transit countries, background on the experience, criticisms, and reform efforts under these provisions; a summary of early congressional options and proposals advanced in 2001, with possible advantages and disadvantages; a summary of later initiatives with legislative activity; and (5) a tracking of legislative action on the major initiatives.
Date: November 6, 2001
Creator: Storrs, K. Larry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

“Junk E-mail”: An Overview of Issues and Legislation Concerning Unsolicited Commercial Electronic Mail (“Spam”)

Description: This report discusses unsolicited commercial e-mail (UCE), also called “spam” or “junk e-mail.” Not only can it be a nuisance, but its cost may be passed on to consumers through higher charges from Internet service providers who must upgrade their systems to handle the traffic.
Date: November 6, 2001
Creator: Smith, Marcia S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Appropriations for FY2002: Military Construction

Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Defense Appropriations Subcommittees.
Date: November 7, 2001
Creator: Else, Daniel H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Defense Acquisition Reform: Status and Current Issues

Description: The end of the Cold War and its impact on defense spending has created a strong need to reform Department of Defense’s (DOD) acquisition system. With procurement spending down, DOD expects to depend on savings from acquisition reform to help finance future force modernization. Policymakers believe that DOD should use more commercial products because, in many instances, they cost less and their quality is comparable to products built according to DOD military specifications. Many such reform proposals are based on recognition that DOD regulatory barriers and a Cold War acquisition “culture” have inhibited the introduction of commercial products.
Date: November 8, 2001
Creator: Grasso, Valerie Bailey
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Defense Research: DOD's Research, Development, Test and Evaluation Program

Description: On June 27, the Bush Administration released an amended FY2002 budget for the Department of Defense (DOD). The amended budget requests a total of $328.9 billion for DOD, an additional $18.4 billion above the Administration’s “Blueprint” budget released in April. The amended budget included an additional $5.6 billion for DOD’s Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT&E) program. This raises the FY2002 RDT&E request to $47.4 billion, $6.3 billion above the total obligational authority available for RDT&E in FY2001.
Date: November 8, 2001
Creator: Moteff, John D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department