Congressional Research Service Reports - 28 Matching Results

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Particulate Matter (PM2.5): Implementation of the 1997 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)

Description: Particulate matter (PM), including fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and larger, but still inhalable particles (PM10), is one of the six principal pollutants for which the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). This report outlines the implementation process for the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS and describes issues raised as EPA and states develop implementation strategies.
Date: September 11, 2008
Creator: Esworthy, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conservation Reserve Program: Status and Current Issues

Description: This report discusses the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) enacted in 1985, which provides payments to farmers to take highly erodible or environmentally-sensitive cropland out of production for ten years or more to conserve soil and water resources.
Date: September 11, 2008
Creator: Cowan, Tadlock
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Taxes and Offshore Outsourcing

Description: This report discusses the impact of taxes on international trade and investment has been debated for decades. Most recently, a variety of bills addressing international taxation have been introduced in the 110th Congress—some would cut taxes for U.S. firms overseas, while others would increase taxes on foreign investment. The debate over taxes and foreign outsourcing has tended to grow more heated during times of domestic economic weakness and high unemployment; questions arise over whether taxes contribute to such weakness by discouraging exports (or encouraging imports) or by encouraging U.S. firms to move abroad. The debate over international taxation has again become prominent as a part of the wider debate over “outsourcing.” With taxes, the debate asks how the current system affects outsourcing, and whether policies designed to limit the phenomenon might be desirable.
Date: March 11, 2008
Creator: Marples, Donald J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Regulation of Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions: State and Federal Standards

Description: This report discusses the federal Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards (including tighter standards enacted under P.L. 110-140) and compares them with the GHG standards under California’s law. It also identifies some factors that would have a bearing on the relative stringency of CAFE and the California program.
Date: January 11, 2008
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy CG(X) Cruiser Program: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

Description: This report explores the reasoning behind the development of the technologies and design options for a planned new cruiser called the CG(X). It also discusses the budgetary actions taking place to enable their development, selected technical specifics of their design, and various other information relating to defense procurement costs.
Date: August 11, 2008
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy DDG-1000 and DDG-51 Destroyer Programs: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

Description: This report provides background information on the DDG-1000 (Zumwalt) program. It discusses the Navy's proposed FY2010 budget requests of $1,084.2 million to complete the cost of a third Zumwalt-class destroyer that was authorized but only partially funded in FY2009.
Date: September 11, 2008
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sea-Based Ballistic Missile Defense-- Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report discusses the changing role and finance of sea-based systems in U.S. ballistic missile defense (BMD). Decisions that Congress reaches on this issue could affect U.S. BMD capabilities and funding requirements; the size, capabilities, and operational patterns of the Navy and the other services; and the shipbuilding industrial base.
Date: August 11, 2008
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Telework for Executive Agency Employees: A Side-by-Side Comparison of Legislation Pending in the 111th Congress

Description: S. 1000, the Telework Enhancement Act of 2007, and H.R. 4106, the Telework Improvements Act of 2008, are currently pending in the 110th Congress. Under the pending legislation and Senate amendments, the heads of executive branch agencies would be required to establish policies under which employees (with some exceptions) could be eligible to participate in telework. This report presents a side-by-side comparison of the provisions of S. 1000, as reported; H.R. 4106, as passed by the House.
Date: June 11, 2008
Creator: Schwemle, Barbara L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance

Description: This report gives a summary of the usage of the War Powers Resolution (WPR) and various issues related to proposals to modify or repeal the resolution. The report summarizes most recent developments and background, and gives an overview of United Nations actions, and WPR activities in former Yugoslavia/Bosnia, Kosovo, Iraq (post-1991), Haiti, and Somalia. It also includes commentary on the instances formally reported under the WPR, consultation with Congress, and the current issues which Congress is considering.
Date: June 11, 2008
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S.-Iraq Strategic Framework and Status of Forces Agreement: Congressional Response

Description: This report is divided into two main parts: the first describes in detail the actions taken by Congress concerning the planned Iraq Agreements, including legislative initiatives and congressional hearings; the second provides a range of options for further congressional action concerning Congress's role in negotiating, executing, and implementing the Iraq Agreements.
Date: July 11, 2008
Creator: Weed, Matthew C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Midwest Flooding Disaster: Rethinking Federal Flood Insurance?

Description: This report examines the impact of the 2008 Midwest floods on the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) in the context of congressional efforts to reauthorize and modify the program before its authorization expires on September 30, 2008. The report begins with an assessment of the risk of flooding in the United States and why Congress might move to rethink the current multifaceted approach to federal flood insurance. The report concludes with lessons learned from the 1993 and 2008 Midwest floods, and an analysis of the NFIP's current financial conditions and major policy issues, as well as a summary of legislative proposals pending before the 110th Congress.
Date: August 11, 2008
Creator: King, Rawle O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intelligence Issues for Congress

Description: This report explores the various issues currently facing Congress in regards to intelligence and counterterrorism activities, including the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act (P.L. 108-458), signed in December 2004; the position of Director of National Intelligence (DNI), which that act created; the importance of collaborative efforts between various intelligence agencies to successfully carry out counterterrorism measures; and other pieces of legislation relevant to such matters.
Date: July 11, 2008
Creator: Best, Richard A., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drilling in the Great Lakes: Background and Issues

Description: This report provides background information on historical and current drilling practices in the Great Lakes, and statistics on oil and natural gas production, where data are available. It describes state laws regarding drilling in the Great Lakes and analyzes the environmental, socioeconomic, and legal aspects of drilling in or under the Great Lakes.
Date: November 11, 2008
Creator: Sheikh, Pervaze A.; Humphries, Marc; Ramseur, Jonathan L. & Vann, Adam
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tactical Aircraft Modernization: Issues for Congress

Description: This report examines the Department of Defense's (DOD's) three largest tactical aircraft modernization programs. The "Background" section provides a brief description of each program and a discussion of how tactical aircraft fit into military air operations: the missions they typically perform and how they contrast to longer range combat aircraft. The "Analysis" section examines a number of policy issues, including affordability, capability required, force structure, and defense industrial base. The paper concludes with a synopsis of congressional action on these programs.
Date: August 11, 2008
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Liability for Flood Damage Related to Army Corps of Engineers Projects

Description: This report examines selected issues of the federal government's liability depending on the theory of the levee failures, and analyzes legal defenses available to the federal government. The report uses flood damage related to Hurricane Katrina as an illustration of these legal issues regarding federal liability, but the general principles in the analysis would apply to flood damage resulting from any such flood control project.
Date: July 11, 2008
Creator: Brougher, Cynthia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pesticide Registration and Tolerance Fees: An Overview

Description: This report provides a historical overview of federal authority regarding pesticide fees, including the amount of fee revenues collected over time, and summarizes the key elements of the Pesticide Registration Improvement Act (PRIA) and the revisions reflected in PRIA 2.
Date: June 11, 2008
Creator: Esworthy, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Enforcement of the HIPAA Privacy and Security Rules

Description: This report discusses enforcement of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) administrative simplification provisions by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Department of Justice (DOJ), and provides an overview of the HIPAA Administrative Simplification Enforcement Rule.
Date: August 11, 2008
Creator: Stevens, Gina Marie
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Air Quality: Multi-Pollutant Legislation in the 110th Congress

Description: This report discusses air pollutants (petroleum, natural gas, and coal), which account for about two-thirds of U.S. electricity generation. These gases include several pollutants that directly pose risks to human health and welfare. The report also discusses the utilities that are subject to an array of environmental regulations.
Date: February 11, 2008
Creator: Parker, Larry & Blodgett, John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Active Military Sonar and Marine Mammals: Events and References

Description: This report summarizes legal and political events related to active sonar and marine mammals since 1994. The report discusses the deployment of active sonar by the U.S. Navy and its potential impacts on marine mammals has been an ongoing issue of intense debate; regulatory, legislative, and judicial activity; and international concern.
Date: February 11, 2008
Creator: Buck, Eugene H. & Calvert, Kori
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department