Congressional Research Service Reports - 42 Matching Results

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U.S. Ground Forces Robotics and Autonomous Systems (RAS) and Artificial Intelligence (AI): Considerations for Congress

Description: This report discusses issues for Congress to consider regarding robotics and autonomous systems (RAS) and artificial intelligence (AI), which have the potential to change the nature of warfare. Other nations, notably peer competitors Russia and China, are aggressively pursuing RAS and AI for a variety of military uses, raising considerations about the U.S. military's response--to include lethal autonomous weapons systems (LAWS)--that could be used against U.S. forces.
Date: November 20, 2018
Creator: Feickert, Andrew; Kapp, Lawrence; Elsea, Jennifer K. & Harris, Laurie A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Defense Production Act of 1950: History, Authorities, and Considerations for Congress

Description: This report examines some of the extensive history of the Defense Production Act of 1950 (DPA), focusing primarily on its creation and most recent legislative reauthorization. This report also identifies relevant delegations of the President's DPA authorities made in Executive Order (E.O.) 13603 -- National Defense Resources Preparedness -- and provides a brief overview of issues Congress may consider in its oversight.
Date: November 20, 2018
Creator: Brown, Jared T. & Schwartz, Moshe
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alternative Fuel and Advanced Vehicle Technology Incentives: A Summary of Federal Programs

Description: This report gives an overview of the federal incentives that support the development and deployment of alternatives to conventional fuels and engines in transportation including tax deductions and credits for vehicle purchases and the installation of refueling systems; federal grants for conversion of older vehicles to newer technologies; mandates for the use of biofuels; and incentives for manufacturers to produce alternative fuel vehicles. It also addresses how these incentives relate to goals of reducing petroleum consumption and import dependence, improving environmental quality, expanding domestic manufacturing, and promoting agriculture and rural development.
Date: November 20, 2018
Creator: Cunningham, Lynn J.; Canis, Bill; Arostegui, Danielle A. & Yacobucci, Brent D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP): Issues in Brief

Description: This report discusses the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program which is made up of four agencies (FEMA, The National Science Foundation, USGS, and National Institute of Standards and Technology) which are responsible for monitoring, reporting, and studying earthquakes and increasing resiliency to earthquakes through means such as stronger infrastructure, early warning systems, and recovery plans.
Date: September 20, 2018
Creator: Folger, Peter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Grants and Loans for State and Local Emergency Communications Projects: Frequently Asked Questions

Description: This report provides congressional staff with information on current federal grants and loans that fund emergency communications, including information on the application process, eligible communications activities, and other resources they can provide to constituents seeking federal grant and loan funding to support emergency communications projects.
Date: September 20, 2018
Creator: Gallagher, Jill C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calling Balls and Strikes: Ethics and Supreme Court Justices

Description: This report examines questions related to the integrity and independence of the Supreme Court, and Congress's potential role in regulating the ethics of the Supreme Court Justices. For example: What mechanisms ensure the integrity of Justices as federal officials? Are Justices subject to any rules of ethical conduct? How might such ethics rules be enforced?
Date: August 20, 2018
Creator: Brown, Cynthia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MS-13 in the United States and Federal Law Enforcement Efforts

Description: This report provides a brief background on the Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13), a violent criminal gang operating in the United States and abroad--namely Central America. It focuses on MS-13's structure and criminal activities in the U.S. and highlights law enforcement initiatives to counter the gang's illicit activities. The report also provides an overview of selected domestic policy issues Congress may examine as part of its efforts to counter MS-13.
Date: August 20, 2018
Creator: Finklea, Kristin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supreme Court Invalidates Public-Sector Union Agency Fees: Considerations for Congress in the Wake of Janus

Description: This report discusses the Supreme Court case Janus v. American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees, Council 31 (AFSCME). In a 5-4 decision, the Court held that "agency fee" arrangements between a union and a government employer necessarily violate the First Amendment, overruling its 1977 decision in Abood v. Detroit Board of Education.
Date: July 20, 2018
Creator: Killion, Victoria L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

"Duck Boat" Accident Highlights Gap in Regulation

Description: This report discusses recent accidents involving amphibious passenger vehicles (APVs), commonly known as "duck boats." The report highlights a gap in the regulation of APVs and provides recommendations made by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) to improve safety.
Date: July 20, 2018
Creator: Canis, Bill
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Trump-Putin Summit

Description: This report discusses the Trump-Putin summit that took place on July 16, 2018 in Helsinki, Finland. The report summarizes issues discussed in the summit press conference, including election interference, Syria, Ukraine, arms control, nonproliferation, and counterterrorism and cybersecurity.
Date: July 20, 2018
Creator: Welt, Cory
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Military Enjoined from Transferring American ISIS Suspect to Foreign Country--at Least for Now

Description: This report discusses the case of Doe v. Mattis, a case with potential ramifications regarding the authority to conduct military operations against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIS). The U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit (D.C. Circuit) upheld 2-1 the district court's injunctions temporarily protecting "John Doe" from forcible transfer to another country from Iraq, where he is currently being held by the U.S. military as a suspected ISIS combatant.
Date: June 20, 2018
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S.-EU Trade and Economic Issues

Description: This report discusses U.S.-EU trade and economic relations, which currently face heightened tension, particularly due to the Trump Administration's trade policy, which is focusing on unilateral tariff measures under U.S. trade law and taking a critical view of the U.S. role in international economic cooperation. Given U.S.-EU historical joint leadership on global trade and economic issues, these developments could have implications for the rules-based international trading system, a foundation of the global economic order that has contributed to global economic growth and stability in the post-World War II era.
Date: July 20, 2018
Creator: Akhtar, Shayerah Ilias
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran Nuclear Agreement and U.S. Exit

Description: This report discusses the 2015 Iran nuclear deal and various options for possible U.S. withdrawal if President Trump decided to try to reimpose sanctions on Iran.
Date: July 20, 2018
Creator: Paul K. Kerr & Kenneth Katzman
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Vacancies Act: A Legal Overview

Description: This report first describes how the Vacancies Act operates and outlines its scope, identifying when the Vacancies Act applies to a given office, how it is enforced, and which offices are exempt from its provisions. The report then explains who may serve as an acting officer and for how long, focusing on the limitations the Vacancies Act places on acting service. Finally, the report turns to issues of particular relevance to Congress, primarily highlighting the Vacancies Act's enforcement mechanisms.
Date: July 20, 2018
Creator: Brannon, Valerie C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Trump Administration's "Zero Tolerance" Immigration Enforcement Policy

Description: This report briefly reviews the statutory authority for prosecuting persons who enter the United States illegally between U.S. ports of entry, and the policies and procedures for processing apprehended illegal border entrants and any accompanying children. It explains enforcement policies in the past and then discusses the Trump Administration's zero tolerance policy on illegal border crossers and the attendant family separations. The report concludes by presenting varied policy perspectives on the zero-tolerance policy and briefly reviews recent related congressional activity. An appendix examines recent trends in the apprehension of family units at the U.S. southern border.
Date: July 20, 2018
Creator: Kandel, William A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent Violent Crime Trends in the United States

Description: This report provides an analysis of changes in violent crime since 1960, with a focus on changes from 2014 to 2016 in violent crime and homicide rates in the 48 largest cities in the United States for which violent crime and homicide data were submitted to the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime Reporting Program.
Date: June 20, 2018
Creator: James, Nathan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Disaster Assistance Response and Recovery Programs: Brief Summaries

Description: This report is designed to assist Members of Congress and their staff as they address the needs of their states, communities, and constituents after a disaster. It includes a summary of federal programs that provide federal disaster assistance to individual survivors, states, territories, local governments, and nongovernmental entities following a natural or man-made disaster.
Date: June 20, 2018
Creator: Kreiser, Maria; Mullins, Maura & Nagel, Jared C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic and Fiscal Conditions in the U.S. Virgin Islands

Description: This report discusses the fiscal and economic challenges facing the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) and related issues for Congress, such as: oversight of federal policies that could affect the USVI's long-term fiscal stability; further legislation that would extend or restructure long-range disaster assistance programs to mitigate those challenges and promote greater resiliency of infrastructure and public programs; and how responses to the USVI's fiscal distress could affect municipal debt markets more broadly.
Date: June 20, 2018
Creator: Austin, D. Andrew
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department