Congressional Research Service Reports - 78 Matching Results

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Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview

Description: This report presents figures showing trends in discretionary budget authority as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) by subfunction within each of 17 budget function categories, using data from President Obama's FY2016 budget submission. This report provides a graphical overview of historical trends in discretionary budget authority from FY1977 through FY2014, estimates for FY2015 spending, and the levels consistent with the President's proposals for FY2016 through FY2020.
Date: February 5, 2015
Creator: Austin, D. Andrew
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Abortion and Family Planning-Related Provisions in U.S. Foreign Assistance Law and Policy

Description: This report details legislation and policies that restrict or place requirements on U.S. funding of abortion or family planning activities abroad. The level and extent of federal funding for these activities is an ongoing and controversial issue in U.S. foreign assistance and will likely continue to be a point of contention during the second session of the 114th Congress.
Date: July 5, 2015
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Statutory Interpretation: Theories, Tools, and Trends

Description: This report begins by discussing the general goals of statutory interpretation, reviewing a variety of contemporary as well as historical approaches. The report then briefly describes the two primary theories of interpretation employed today, before examining the main types of tools that courts use to determine statutory meaning. The report concludes by exploring developing issues in statutory interpretation.
Date: April 5, 2015
Creator: Brannon, Valerie C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congressional Roll Call Votes on the Keystone XL Pipeline

Description: This report provides roll call vote data related to the proposed TransCanada Keystone XL Pipeline that would transport oil sands crude from Canada and shale oil produced in North Dakota and Montana to a market hub in Nebraska for further delivery to Gulf Coast refineries. Voting information is listed chronologically and broken down by chamber, Congress, and type of legislation.
Date: February 5, 2015
Creator: Cunningham, Lynn J. & Cook, Beth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

How Measures Are Brought to the Senate Floor: A Brief Introduction

Description: This report discusses the two basic methods that are used by the Senate to bring legislation to the floor for consideration: The Senate, at the majority leader's request, (1) grants unanimous consent to take up a matter, or (2) agrees to his motion to proceed to consider it. Both methods are derived from the basic premise that the Senate as a body may decide what matters it considers. The Senate may also use the same two methods to bring up executive business (nominations and treaties).
Date: August 5, 2015
Creator: Davis, Christopher M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Unfunded Mandates Reform Act: History, Impact, and Issues

Description: This report examines debates over what constitutes an unfunded federal mandate and the implementation of the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (UMRA). It includes an overview of UMRA, its origins, and provisions; definitions for unfunded federal mandates; how UMRA relates to Congressional procedure (Title I) and to federal rulemaking (Title II); and concluding observations on the issues.
Date: January 5, 2015
Creator: Dilger, Robert J. & Beth, Richard S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Guide to Describing the Income Distribution

Description: This report provides descriptive analysis of the U.S. income distribution to illustrate various concepts. First, it examines the complexities of income measurement and important definitional and data considerations to bear in mind when using and interpreting income statistics. Next, it describes two popular data sources used to study the U.S. income distribution, followed by sections on statistics commonly used to provide point-in-time analysis and to compare U.S. income across groups, time, and location. The report concludes with an explanation of the Gini index.
Date: February 5, 2015
Creator: Donovan, Sarah A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Access to Broadband Networks: The Net Neutrality Debate

Description: This report discusses the current debate over "net neutrality." While there is no single accepted definition of "net neutrality," most agree that any such definition should include the general principles that owners of the networks that compose and provide access to the Internet should not control how consumers lawfully use that network, and they should not be able to discriminate against content provider access to that network.
Date: February 5, 2015
Creator: Gilroy, Angele A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies: FY2016 Appropriations in Brief

Description: This report focuses on FY2016 appropriations for Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies. It presents a brief overview of the appropriations requested by the President for FY2016 for agencies in the bill. It also briefly compares the FY2016 requested appropriations with appropriations enacted for FY2015. Finally, it provides the appropriations enacted for the bill for the last nine years (FY2007-FY2015) in current dollars (not adjusted for inflation) and constant dollars (adjusted for inflation).
Date: June 5, 2015
Creator: Hardy Vincent, Carol
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Procedures for Congressional Action in Relation to a Nuclear Agreement with Iran: In Brief

Description: This report provides, in brief, analysis of the congressional procedural provisions laid out in the Iran Nuclear Agreement Review Act of 2015 (P.L. 114-17). The act establishes a period for Congress to review any comprehensive agreement, during which certain presidential actions to provide relief from sanctions on Iran are barred.
Date: August 5, 2015
Creator: Heitshusen, Valerie & Beth, Richard S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Civilian Nuclear Waste Disposal

Description: This report looks at the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), Yucca Mountain, and the Obama Administration's de-funding of Yucca Mountain. Federal policy is based on the premise that nuclear waste can be disposed of safely, but proposed storage and disposal facilities have frequently been challenged on safety, health, and environmental grounds. Most of the current debate surrounding civilian radioactive waste focuses on highly radioactive spent fuel from nuclear power plants.
Date: August 5, 2015
Creator: Holt, Mark
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran's Foreign Policy

Description: This report provides an overview of Iran's foreign policy, which has been a subject of numerous congressional hearings and of sanctions and other legislation for many years. The report analyzes Iranian foreign policy as a whole and by region. The regional analysis discusses those countries where Iranian policy is of U.S. concern. The report also makes reference to Iran's efforts to utilize its ties to various countries to try to mitigate the effects of U.S. sanctions.
Date: May 5, 2015
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear Cooperation with Other Countries: A Primer

Description: This report discusses section 123 of the Atomic Energy Act (AEA), the specific requirements of which must be met in order for the United States to engage in civilian nuclear cooperation with other states. The AEA also provides for exemptions to these requirements, export control licensing procedures, and criteria for terminating cooperation.
Date: August 5, 2015
Creator: Kerr, Paul K. & Nikitin, Mary Beth D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Future of Internet Governance: Should the U.S. Relinquish Its Authority Over ICANN?

Description: The report provides background information on Domain Name System and the role of the U.S. government. This report discusses the U.S. government limited authority over the Internet's domain name system, primarily through the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) functions contract between the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) and the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN).
Date: May 5, 2015
Creator: Kruger, Lennard G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

United States Fire Administration: An Overview

Description: This report discusses the United States Fire Administration (USFA), which aims to significantly reduce the nation's loss of life from fire, while also achieving a reduction in property loss and non-fatal injury due to fire.
Date: January 5, 2015
Creator: Kruger, Lennard G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFI) Fund: Programs and Policy Issues

Description: As communities face a variety of economic challenges, some are looking to local banks and financial institutions for solutions that address the specific development needs of low-income and distressed communities. Community development financial institutions (CDFIs) provide financial products and services, such as mortgage financing for homebuyers and not-for-profit developers; underwriting and risk capital for community facilities; technical assistance; and commercial loans and investments to small, start-up, or expanding businesses. This report begins by describing the CDFI Fund’s history, current appropriations, and each of its programs. A description of the fund’s process of certifying certain financial institutions to be eligible for the fund’s program awards follows. The next section provides an overview of each program’s purpose, use of award proceeds, eligibility criteria, and relevant issues for Congress.
Date: February 5, 2015
Creator: Lowry, Sean
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department