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Affirmative Action: Justice O'Connor's Opinions

Description: An examination of Justice O’Connor’s opinions reveals a gradual shift in perspective regarding the legal and constitutional standards to be applied in evaluating governmental affirmative action efforts, and the manner of their application in various legal and factual settings. This report briefly surveys decisions of retiring Justice Sandra Day O’Connor in affirmative action cases, an area where her opinions have frequently determined the outcome.
Date: July 19, 2005
Creator: Dale, Charles V.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Affirmative Action Revisited: A Legal History and Prospectus

Description: Affirmative action remains a focal point of public debate as the result of legal and political developments at the federal, state, and local levels. This report discusses legislation related to affirmative action, as well as legal rulings on the topic and the federal government's role in first establishing and, later, attempting to curb affirmative action policies.
Date: January 30, 2004
Creator: Dale, Charles V.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Affirmative Action Revisited: A Legal History and Prospectus

Description: Affirmative action remains a focal point of public debate as the result of legal and political developments at the federal, state, and local levels. This report discusses legislation related to affirmative action, as well as legal rulings on the topic and the federal government's role in first establishing and, later, attempting to curb affirmative action policies.
Date: December 15, 2004
Creator: Dale, Charles V.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Agency Enforcement of the Prohibition Against Sex Discrimination Mandated by Title IX and EO 13160

Description: This report provides a summary of the federal agencies’ enforcement of and compliance with the prohibition against sex discrimination mandated by Title IX and Executive Order 13160. Specifically, this report discusses the implementation of regulations and procedures for enforcing the Title IX compliance of grant recipients and for enforcing the compliance of the federal agencies themselves with President Clinton’s Executive Order.
Date: October 28, 2002
Creator: Feder, Jody
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assistance to Afghan and Iraqi Women: Issues for Congress

Description: This report reviews the U.S.-sponsored funding and programs directed toward women and children in Afghanistan and Iraq. The national and international response to the plight of Afghan and Iraqi women, even to their most recent experience under the Taliban in Afghanistan or Baathist regime in Iraq, will impact their future role and the long-term developments in each country, such as the implementation of a new constitution, the incorporation of women in local and national governance, the role of Islam and the state, the growth of the economy, the curbing of security concerns, and the role of U.S. and international assistance. This report will be updated as events warrant.
Date: June 18, 2004
Creator: Armanios, Febe & Margesson, Rhoda
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding

Description: This report discusses the inception of the Assistance to Firefighters Grant (AFG) program in the FY2001 National Defense Authorization Act, as well as current supplemental legislation and proposed funding.
Date: August 6, 2008
Creator: Kruger, Lennard G.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Civil Rights Legislation: Responses to Grove City College v. Bell

Description: This report discusses how broad should the coverage of Federal civil rights laws be? This was the central issue in the debate over legislation introduced in response to the February 1984 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Grove City College v. Bell.
Date: May 27, 1988
Creator: Lyke, Robert F.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW): Congressional Issues

Description: This report provides an overview of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) and describes its background, objectives, and structure, including the role of the Convention's monitoring body, the CEDAW Committee. It examines U.S. policy and issues in the U.S. ratification debate, including the Convention's possible impact on U.S. sovereignty, its effectiveness in combating discrimination, and its role as an instrument of U.S. foreign policy.
Date: August 5, 2008
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW): Congressional Issues

Description: This report provides an overview of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) and describes its background, objectives, and structure, including the role of the Convention's monitoring body, the CEDAW Committee. It examines U.S. policy and issues in the U.S. ratification debate, including the Convention's possible impact on U.S. sovereignty, its effectiveness in combating discrimination, and its role as an instrument of U.S. foreign policy.
Date: October 28, 2008
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Diversity, Inclusion, and Equal Opportunity in the Armed Services: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report starts by giving an overview of recent research on diversity and organizational management. The next sections outline DOD's military personnel policies, processes and organizational structure for managing diversity, inclusion, and equal opportunity. Finally, the report examines how the concept of diversity and inclusion has evolved over the history of the Armed Forces and addresses some of the current legislative and policy issues related to diversity in the Armed Forces.
Date: December 23, 2015
Creator: Kamarck, Kristy N.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Equal Rights Amendment (Proposed)

Description: The proposed Equal Rights Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was first introduced in 1923, and was passed by the Congress in 1972. In 1978, Congress extended the original deadline for ratification of the ERA. Thus, if it receives approval in the form of ratification by 38 States before June 30, 1982, the measure will become the 27th Amendment to the Constitution, and will require equal treatment under Federal and State laws and practices for all persons, regardless of sex.
Date: July 8, 1982
Creator: Gladstone, Leslie W
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Equal Rights Amendment (Proposed)

Description: The proposed Equal Rights Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was first introduced in 1923, and was passed by the Congress in 1972. In 1978, Congress extended the original deadline for ratification of the ERA. Thus, if it receives approval in the form of ratification by 38 States before June 30, 1982, the measure will become the 27th Amendment to the Constitution, and will require equal treatment under Federal and State laws and practices for all persons, regardless of sex.
Date: October 18, 1974
Creator: Holcomb, Morrigene
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Equal Rights Amendments: State Provisions

Description: Twenty states adopted state equal rights amendments between 1879 and 1998. The texts of most of these amendments either are similar to the proposed federal amendment or restate the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. The timing of the enactment of these state amendments and the choice of wording reflect both the ebb and flow of the women's movement in the United States and the political culture of the particular states at the time of passage. A brief history of the women's rights movement as it relates to the passage of state equal rights amendments is included. The report ends with the text and the date of enactment of each amendment.
Date: August 23, 2004
Creator: Gladstone, Leslie W
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Equal Rights for Women

Description: Amendments to the Constitution to provide equality of rights for women have been reintroduced in every Congress from the 67th i n 1923 to the 100th in 1987. Also proposed in recent years, although not to date in the 100th Congress, has been legislation to improve women's rights without amending the Constitution: a statue to forbid enforcement of a classification based on sex -- except where necessary to achieve a “compelling state interest, " and a measure providing for selective revision of existing Federal laws that discriminate on the basis of sex.
Date: October 14, 1987
Creator: Gladstone, Leslie W
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Elementary and Secondary Education Programs: Reauthorization Issues

Description: This report discusses the reauthorization of most Federal elementary and secondary education programs, which the 100th Congress is currently considering, as well as the creation of several new programs. Issues have included: (1) Federal versus ~tate/local priorities in the use of funds; (2) use of formula grants or competitive grants to allocate funds; (3) services for eligible nonpublic school children; (4) relationship between Federal programs and State-level school reform activities; and (5) information about programs and participants for the Congress.
Date: May 13, 1988
Creator: Riddle, Wayne C
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federally Supported Water Supply and Wastewater Treatment Programs

Description: This report provides background information on the types of water supply and wastewater treatment projects traditionally funded by the federal government and the several existing programs to assist communities with water supply and wastewater recycling and treatment.
Date: March 25, 2003
Creator: Cody, Betsy A.; Copeland, Claudia; Tiemann, Mary & Zinn, Jeffrey
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Female Genital Mutilation as Persecution: When Can It Constitute a Basis for Asylum and Withholding of Removal?

Description: This report first explores the basic statutory and regulatory framework that governs refugee law. This entails an outline of the requirements an applicant must meet in order to qualify as a refugee, a discussion about the differences between the two main forms of relief for aliens facing removal from the United States, asylum and withholding of removal, and an examination of several important issues and controversies concerning this particular area of refugee law.
Date: July 22, 2008
Creator: Kim, Yule
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Female Genital Mutilation as Persecution: When Can It Constitute a Basis for Asylum and Withholding of Removal?

Description: This report explores the basic statutory and regulatory framework that governs asylum law. This entails an outline of the requirements an applicant must meet in order to obtain relief under asylum law and a discussion about the differences between the two main forms of relief for aliens facing removal from the United States: asylum and withholding of removal. It will then examine several important issues and controversies concerning female genital mutilation (FGM) and its effect on asylum law.
Date: October 10, 2008
Creator: Kim, Yule
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Gender Wage Gap and Pay Equity: Is Comparable Worth the Next Step?

Description: This report examines the trend in the male-female wage gap and the explanations offered for its existence. Remedies proposed for the gender wage gap's amelioration are addressed, with an in-depth focus on the comparable worth approach to achieving "pay equity" or "fair pay" between women and men.
Date: December 20, 2004
Creator: Levine, Linda
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Immigration Provisions of the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA)

Description: This report discusses the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA, P.L. 103-322) that congress passed in 1994. This legislation created new programs within the Departments of Justice and Health and Human Services that aimed to both reduce domestic violence and improve response to and recovery from domestic violence incidents.
Date: May 15, 2012
Creator: Kandel, William A.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Immigration Provisions of the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA)

Description: This report describes how the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) provisions work in practice. It discusses improvements suggested by immigration attorneys and law enforcement observers to increase the utilization of VAWA provisions by abused foreign nationals as well as ways to reduce immigration fraud. The report closes with possible immigration-related issues that Congress may choose to consider should it reauthorize VAWA.
Date: April 10, 2012
Creator: Kandel, William A.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department