Congressional Research Service Reports - 131 Matching Results

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Women in the Armed Forces

Description: Women have become an integral part of the armed forces, but several issues remain. One is whether to reduce, maintain, or expand the number of women in the services as the total forces are being reduced. A second question is to what extent women should continue to be excluded from some combat positions by policy. A third question is whether or not women should be included if the draft is reinstated? Would national security be jeopardized or enhanced by increasing reliance on women in the armed forces? Should women have equal opportunities and responsibilities in national defense? Or do role and physical differences between the sexes, the protection of future generations, and other social norms require limiting the assignments of women in the armed forces? Opinion in the United States is deeply divided on the fundamental issues involved.
Date: August 31, 1982
Creator: Collier, Ellen C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Women in the United States Congress

Description: This report identifies women who have served as Senators or as Members of the House of Representatives. It notes their party affiliation, the States they have represented, the dates of their appointment or election, the length of their service, their committee assignments, and their service in committee chairmanships.
Date: July 13, 1983
Creator: Schwemle, Barbara L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Elementary and Secondary Education Programs: Reauthorization Issues

Description: This report discusses the reauthorization of most Federal elementary and secondary education programs, which the 100th Congress is currently considering, as well as the creation of several new programs. Issues have included: (1) Federal versus ~tate/local priorities in the use of funds; (2) use of formula grants or competitive grants to allocate funds; (3) services for eligible nonpublic school children; (4) relationship between Federal programs and State-level school reform activities; and (5) information about programs and participants for the Congress.
Date: May 13, 1988
Creator: Riddle, Wayne C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Minority Contracting and Affirmative Action for Disadvantaged Small Businesses: Legal Issues

Description: This report discusses the minority participation “goals” that have been an integral part of federal policies to promote racial and gender equality in contracting on federally financed construction projects and in connection with other large federal contracts.
Date: February 24, 2006
Creator: Dale, Charles V
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kuwait: Security, Reform, and U.S. Policy

Description: Kuwaiti leaders peacefully resolved a succession crisis that erupted following the January 15, 2006 death of its long-ruling Amir. However, a new crisis erupted in May 2006 over the structure of the next parliamentary elections, prompting a dissolution of the existing parliament and scheduling of new elections for June 29, 2006. Women will be able to run and to vote.
Date: May 24, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nonmarital Childbearing: Trends, Reasons, and Public Policy Interventions

Description: This report analyzes the trends in nonmarital childbearing, discusses some of the characteristics of unwed mothers, addresses some issues involving the fathers of children born outside of marriage, covers many of the reasons for nonmarital childbearing, examines the impact of nonmarital births on families and on the nation, and presents the public policy interventions that have been used to prevent nonmarital births or ameliorate some of the negative financial consequences that are sometimes associated with nonmarital childbearing.
Date: November 20, 2008
Creator: Solomon-Fears, Carmen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Millennium Development Goals: The September 2010 U.N. High-level Meeting

Description: This report discusses overarching trends in Millennium Development Goals (MDG) progress and lessons learned from previous and ongoing efforts to achieve them. The MDGs are a group of measurable development targets agreed to by 189 U.N. member states - including the United States - as part of the 2000 Millennium Declaration. The MDGs cover a number of issues, such as eradicating extreme hunger and poverty, combating HIV/AIDS, and promoting gender equality and women's empowerment. This report examines U.S. policy toward the MDGs and how, if at all, the Goals fit into U.S. development and foreign assistance policy. It also examines different schools of thought regarding the effectiveness of the Goals, their role in international development, and their long-term sustainability. This report addresses the MDGs as a whole; it does not assess or analyze issues pertaining to the individual Goals.
Date: September 23, 2010
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa & Lawson, Marian Leonardo
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The U.N. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW): Issues in the U.S. Ratification Debate

Description: The Senate may consider providing its advice and consent to U.S. ratification of the United Nations (U.N.) Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW, or the Convention) during the 112th Congress. CEDAW is the only international human rights treaty that specifically addresses the rights of women. This report provides an overview of CEDAW's background, objectives, and structure, including the role of the Convention's monitoring body, the CEDAW Committee. It examines U.S. policy and issues in the U.S. ratification debate, including the Convention's possible impact on U.S. sovereignty, its effectiveness in combating discrimination, and its role as an instrument of U.S. foreign policy.
Date: November 12, 2010
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pay Equity Legislation

Description: This report begins by showing the trend in the male-female wage gap and by examining the explanations that have been offered for its enduring presence. It next discusses the major laws directed at eliminating sex-based wage discrimination as well as relevant federal court cases. The report closes with a description of pay equity legislation that has been considered by Congress in recent years, including bills introduced in the 111th Congress.
Date: September 20, 2010
Creator: Feder, Jody & Levine, Linda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Survey of Federal Laws Containing Goals, Set-Asides, Priorities, or Other Preferences Based on Race, Gender, or Ethnicity

Description: This report provides a broad, but by no means exhaustive, survey of federal statutes that specifically refer to race, gender, or ethnicity as factors to be considered in the administration of any federal program.
Date: October 1, 2010
Creator: Feder, Jody; Manuel, Kate M. & Taylor, Julia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Women in the United States Congress: 1917-2011

Description: This report identifies the names, committee assignments, dates of service, and (for Representatives) congressional districts of the 274 women who have served in Congress.
Date: March 18, 2011
Creator: Manning, Jennifer E.; Shogan, Colleen J. & Smelcer, Susan Navarro
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

United Nations System Efforts to Address Violence Against Women

Description: This report provides an overview of recent U.N. efforts to address VAW and highlights key U.N. interagency efforts. It also discusses selected U.N. funds, programs, and agencies that address international violence against women. It does not assess the extent to which VAW is directly addressed or is part of a larger initiative or program.
Date: April 21, 2011
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

International Violence Against Women: U.S. Response and Policy Issues

Description: This report addresses causes, prevalence, and consequences of violence against women. It provides examples of completed and ongoing U.S. activities that address VAW directly or include anti-VAW components. It outlines possible policy issues for the 112th Congress, including the scope and effectiveness of U.S. programs in addressing international VAW; further integrating anti-VAW programs into U.S. assistance and foreign policy mechanisms; U.S. funding for anti-VAW activities worldwide, particularly in light of the global financial crisis, economic recession, and subsequent calls to reduce the U.S. budget deficit; and strengthening U.S. government coordination of anti-VAW activities.
Date: April 14, 2011
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa; Margesson, Rhoda; Salaam-Blyther, Tiaji; Serafino, Nina M. & Wyler, Liana Sun
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Women in the United States Congress: 1917-2011

Description: This report identifies the names, committee assignments, dates of service, and (for Representatives) congressional districts of the 274 women who have served in Congress. It will be updated when there are relevant changes in the makeup of Congress.
Date: September 27, 2011
Creator: Manning, Jennifer E. & Shogan, Colleen J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Women in Combat: Issues for Congress

Description: This report looks at the history of women in US military roles and combat since the 1990's. It also discusses critic's views of exclusionary policy as a civil rights issue.
Date: April 5, 2012
Creator: Burrelli, David F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Immigration Provisions of the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA)

Description: This report discusses the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA, P.L. 103-322) that congress passed in 1994. This legislation created new programs within the Departments of Justice and Health and Human Services that aimed to both reduce domestic violence and improve response to and recovery from domestic violence incidents.
Date: May 15, 2012
Creator: Kandel, William A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department