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Navy Attack Submarine Force-Level Goal and Procurement Rate: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: Of the 282 ships in the Navy at the end of FY2005, 54 were nuclear-powered attack submarines (SSNs). The Navy is planning to maintain in coming years a fleet of 313 ships, including 48 SSNs. The FY2007-FY2001 Future Years Defense Plan (FYDP) proposes maintaining the one-per-year procurement rate through FY2001, and then increasing the rate to two per year in FY2012. Issues for Congress include the following: Is 48 the correct number of SSNs to meet future needs? Should the start of two-per-year Virginia-class procurement be accelerated from FY2012 to an earlier year, such as FY2009, so as to come closer to maintaining a force of 48 SSNs in the 2020s-2030s? How should the submarine design and engineering base be maintained in coming years?
Date: July 26, 2006
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy CVN-21 Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: The Navy's proposed FY2007 budget requests $739 million in advance procurement funding for CVN-78, the first ship in the CVN-21 class of aircraft carriers, and $45 million in advance procurement funding for the aircraft carrier CVN-79, the second ship in the class. The House- and Senate-reported versions of the FY2007 defense appropriations bill (H.R. 5631) recommend approving this request.
Date: July 26, 2006
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy-Marine Corps Amphibious and Maritime Prepositioning Ship Programs: Background and Oversight Issues for Congress

Description: The Navy is proposing to maintain in coming years a Navy with 31 amphibious ships and an additional squadron of 14 Maritime Prepositioning Force (Future), or MPF(F), ships. The squadron is intended to implement a new concept called sea basing, under which forces would be staged at sea and used to conduct expeditionary operations ashore with little or no reliance on nearby land bases. Potential oversight issues for Congress include the amphibious-ship force-level goal, the potential affordability and cost-effectiveness of the sea basing concept, and Navy and Marine Corps coordination with other services in developing the concept.
Date: July 26, 2006
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy Ship Procurement: Alternative Funding Approaches -- Background and Options for Congress

Description: Some observers have proposed procuring Navy ships using incremental funding or advance appropriations rather than the traditional full funding approach that has been used to procure most Navy ships. Supporters believe these alternative funding approaches could increase stability in Navy shipbuilding plans and perhaps increase the number of Navy ships that could be built for a given total amount of ship-procurement funding. The issue for the 109th Congress is whether to maintain or change current practices for funding Navy ship procurement. Congress's decision could be significant because the full funding policy relates to Congress's power of the purse and its responsibility for conducting oversight of defense programs.
Date: July 26, 2006
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran's Nuclear Program: Recent Developments

Description: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections since 2003 have revealed almost two decades' worth of undeclared nuclear activities in Iran, including uranium enrichment and plutonium separation efforts. The Security Council called upon Iran to take steps requested of it by the IAEA Board in February -- reinstate its suspension of enrichment and reprocessing, reconsider construction of its heavy water reactor, ratify and implement the Additional Protocol, and implement transparency measures. Iran has continued enrichment activities and failed to meet the Security Council's request.
Date: July 20, 2006
Creator: Squassoni, Sharon
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran's Nuclear Program: Recent Developments

Description: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections since 2003 have revealed almost two decades' worth of undeclared nuclear activities in Iran, including uranium enrichment and plutonium separation efforts. The Security Council called upon Iran to take steps requested of it by the IAEA Board in February -- reinstate its suspension of enrichment and reprocessing, reconsider construction of its heavy water reactor, ratify and implement the Additional Protocol, and implement transparency measures. Iran has continued enrichment activities and failed to meet the Security Council's request.
Date: July 20, 2006
Creator: Squassoni, Sharon
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues

Description: Congress has long been concerned about whether U.S. policy advances the national interest in reducing the role of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and missiles that could deliver them. China has taken some steps to mollify U.S. concerns about its role in weapons proliferation. Skeptics question whether China's cooperation in weapons nonproliferation has warranted President Bush's pursuit of stronger bilateral ties. This report discusses the national security problem of China's role in weapons proliferation and issues related to the U.S. policy response, including legislation, since the mid-1990s.
Date: July 17, 2006
Creator: Kan, Shirley A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy Ship Deployments: New Approaches -- Background and Issues for Congress

Description: The Navy is implementing or experimenting with new kinds of naval formations, more flexible forward-deployment schedules, forward-homeporting additional Navy ships, and long-duration deployments with crew rotation (which the Navy calls Sea Swap). These changes, which form a key part of Navy transformation, raise several potential issues for Congress. This report will be updated as events warrant.
Date: July 14, 2006
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tactical Aircraft Modernization: Issues for Congress

Description: This report examines the Department of Defense's (DOD) four largest tactical aircraft modernization programs. The background section provides a brief description of each program, and a discussion of how tactical aircraft fit into military air operations: the missions they typically perform and how they contrast to longer-range combat aircraft. The analysis section examines a number of policy issues, including affordability, capability required, force structure, service roles and missions, industrial base, and transformation. The paper concludes with a synopsis of recent congressional action on these programs.
Date: July 14, 2006
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Combat Aircraft Sales to South Asia: Potential Implications

Description: On June 28, 2006, the Bush Administration announced its proposal to sell 36 F-16 C/D Block 50/52 Falcon combat aircraft to Pakistan at an estimated case value of $3 billion. Some believe that these sales are partly an effort to reward the Pakistani Government for the role it has played in support of U.S.-led anti-terrorism efforts, and this consideration is noted in the text of the formal notification of the F-16 sales. Combat aircraft are considered "essential for conducting surprise attacks or initiating large-scale offensive operations." Therefore, the transfer of combat aircraft can be a significant policy decision, especially to a region with known tensions and territorial disputes. It is currently unclear what long-term effects a potential sale of combat aircraft to South Asia might have on U.S. political relations with Pakistan and India, or the political relationship between them.
Date: July 6, 2006
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher; Grimmett, Richard F. & Kronstadt, K. Alan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department