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Nuclear Weapons: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

Description: A comprehensive test ban treaty, or CTBT, is the oldest item on the nuclear arms control agenda. Three treaties currently limit testing to underground only, with a maximum force equal to 150,000 tons of TNT. This report outlines the CTBT and related legislation.
Date: October 11, 2006
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear Weapons: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

Description: A comprehensive test ban treaty, or CTBT, is the oldest item on the nuclear arms control agenda. Three treaties currently limit testing to underground only, with a maximum force equal to 150,000 tons of TNT. This report outlines the CTBT and related legislation.
Date: October 3, 2006
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear Weapons: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

Description: A comprehensive test ban treaty, or CTBT, is the oldest item on the nuclear arms control agenda. Three treaties currently limit testing to underground only, with a maximum force equal to 150,000 tons of TNT. This report outlines the CTBT and related legislation.
Date: August 16, 2006
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tactical Aircraft Modernization: Issues for Congress

Description: This report examines the Department of Defense's (DOD) four largest tactical aircraft modernization programs. The background section provides a brief description of each program, and a discussion of how tactical aircraft fit into military air operations: the missions they typically perform and how they contrast to longer-range combat aircraft. The analysis section examines a number of policy issues, including affordability, capability required, force structure, service roles and missions, industrial base, and transformation. The paper concludes with a synopsis of recent congressional action on these programs.
Date: July 14, 2006
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Combat Aircraft Sales to South Asia: Potential Implications

Description: On June 28, 2006, the Bush Administration announced its proposal to sell 36 F-16 C/D Block 50/52 Falcon combat aircraft to Pakistan at an estimated case value of $3 billion. Some believe that these sales are partly an effort to reward the Pakistani Government for the role it has played in support of U.S.-led anti-terrorism efforts, and this consideration is noted in the text of the formal notification of the F-16 sales. Combat aircraft are considered "essential for conducting surprise attacks or initiating large-scale offensive operations." Therefore, the transfer of combat aircraft can be a significant policy decision, especially to a region with known tensions and territorial disputes. It is currently unclear what long-term effects a potential sale of combat aircraft to South Asia might have on U.S. political relations with Pakistan and India, or the political relationship between them.
Date: July 6, 2006
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher; Grimmett, Richard F. & Kronstadt, K. Alan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conventional Warheads for Long-Range Ballistic Missiles: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: The United States has deployed long-range ballistic missiles as a part of its strategic offensive nuclear forces for more than 40 years. In recent years, analysts both inside and outside the government have suggested that the United States deploy conventional warheads on these missiles. This would provide the United States with the ability to strike promptly anywhere in the world, regardless of the presence of overseas bases or nearby naval forces. Many have expressed concerns about the possibility that other nations, such as Russia or China might misinterpret the launch of a conventionally-armed ballistic missile and conclude that they are under attack with nuclear weapons.
Date: June 27, 2006
Creator: Woolf, Amy F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Air Force Aerial Refueling Methods: Flying Boom versus Hose-and-Drogue

Description: Decisions on the composition of the Air Force aerial refueling fleet were made decades ago, when the primary mission was to refuel long-range strategic bombers. Modifications have been made to many of these tanker aircraft (KC-135s and KC-10s) to make them more effective in refueling fighter aircraft. This report examines the balance between two different refueling methods in today's refueling fleet -- "flying boom" and "hose-and-drogue."
Date: June 5, 2006
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy Ship Procurement: Alternative Funding Approaches -- Background and Options for Congress

Description: Some observers have proposed procuring Navy ships using incremental funding or advance appropriations rather than the traditional full funding approach that has been used to procure most Navy ships. Supporters believe these alternative funding approaches could increase stability in Navy shipbuilding plans and perhaps increase the number of Navy ships that could be built for a given total amount of ship-procurement funding. The issue for the 109th Congress is whether to maintain or change current practices for funding Navy ship procurement. Congress's decision could be significant because the full funding policy relates to Congress's power of the purse and its responsibility for conducting oversight of defense programs.
Date: June 20, 2006
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy Ship Procurement: Alternative Funding Approaches -- Background and Options for Congress

Description: Some observers have proposed procuring Navy ships using incremental funding or advance appropriations rather than the traditional full funding approach that has been used to procure most Navy ships. Supporters believe these alternative funding approaches could increase stability in Navy shipbuilding plans and perhaps increase the number of Navy ships that could be built for a given total amount of ship-procurement funding. The issue for the 109th Congress is whether to maintain or change current practices for funding Navy ship procurement. Congress's decision could be significant because the full funding policy relates to Congress's power of the purse and its responsibility for conducting oversight of defense programs.
Date: July 26, 2006
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy Aircraft Carriers: Proposed Retirement of USS John F. Kennedy -- Issues and Options for Congress

Description: The Navy's FY2007 budget proposes retiring the conventionally-powered aircraft carrier John F. Kennedy (CV-67) and reducing the size of the carrier force from 12 ships to 11. One potential issue for Congress is whether the carrier force should include 12 ships or some other number. If a carrier is to be retired in the near term so as to reduce the carrier force to 11 ships, a second potential issue is whether that carrier should be the Kennedy or another ship. Potential alternatives to the Kennedy include the conventionally-powered Kitty Hawk and the nuclear-powered carriers Enterprise and Vinson. A third potential issue for Congress concerns the relative military advantages of different homeporting arrangements for the carrier force.
Date: August 29, 2006
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy-Marine Corps Amphibious and Maritime Prepositioning Ship Programs: Background and Oversight Issues for Congress

Description: The Navy is proposing to maintain in coming years a Navy with 31 amphibious ships and an additional squadron of 14 Maritime Prepositioning Force (Future), or MPF(F), ships. The squadron is intended to implement a new concept called sea basing, under which forces would be staged at sea and used to conduct expeditionary operations ashore with little or no reliance on nearby land bases. Potential oversight issues for Congress include the amphibious-ship force-level goal, the potential affordability and cost-effectiveness of the sea basing concept, and Navy and Marine Corps coordination with other services in developing the concept.
Date: July 26, 2006
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy Attack Submarine Force-Level Goal and Procurement Rate: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: Of the 282 ships in the Navy at the end of FY2005, 54 were nuclear-powered attack submarines (SSNs). The Navy is planning to maintain in coming years a fleet of 313 ships, including 48 SSNs. The FY2007-FY2001 Future Years Defense Plan (FYDP) proposes maintaining the one-per-year procurement rate through FY2001, and then increasing the rate to two per year in FY2012. Issues for Congress include the following: Is 48 the correct number of SSNs to meet future needs? Should the start of two-per-year Virginia-class procurement be accelerated from FY2012 to an earlier year, such as FY2009, so as to come closer to maintaining a force of 48 SSNs in the 2020s-2030s? How should the submarine design and engineering base be maintained in coming years?
Date: July 26, 2006
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Nuclear Weapons: Changes in Policy and Force Structure

Description: The Bush Administration conducted a review of U.S. nuclear weapons force posture during its first year in office. Although the review sought to adjust U.S. nuclear posture to address changes in the international security environment at the start of the new century, it continued many of the policies and programs that had been a part of the U.S. nuclear posture during the previous decade and during the Cold War. This report, which will be updated as needed, provides an overview of the U.S. nuclear posture to highlight areas of change and areas of continuity.
Date: August 10, 2006
Creator: Woolf, Amy F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues

Description: Congress has long been concerned about whether U.S. policy advances the national interest in reducing the role of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and missiles that could deliver them. China has taken some steps to mollify U.S. concerns about its role in weapons proliferation. Skeptics question whether China's cooperation in weapons nonproliferation has warranted President Bush's pursuit of stronger bilateral ties. This report discusses the national security problem of China's role in weapons proliferation and issues related to the U.S. policy response, including legislation, since the mid-1990s.
Date: July 17, 2007
Creator: Kan, Shirley A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues

Description: Congress has long been concerned about whether U.S. policy advances the national interest in reducing the role of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and missiles that could deliver them. China has taken some steps to mollify U.S. concerns about its role in weapons proliferation. Skeptics question whether China's cooperation in weapons nonproliferation has warranted President Bush's pursuit of stronger bilateral ties. This report discusses the national security problem of China's role in weapons proliferation and issues related to the U.S. policy response, including legislation, since the mid-1990s.
Date: August 2, 2006
Creator: Kan, Shirley A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

V-22 Osprey Tilt-Rotor Aircraft

Description: The V-22 Osprey is a tilt-rotor aircraft, capable of vertical or short take off and landing, with forward flight like a conventional fixed-wing aircraft. The MV-22 is the Marine Corps' top aviation priority. Marine Corps leaders believe that the Osprey will provide them an unprecedented capability to quickly and decisively project power from well over the horizon. The V-22 program has been under development for over 25 years. Safety and maintenance concerns have arisen over this period. Supporters tout the V-22's potential operational capabilities relative to the helicopters it will replace. It will fly faster, farther, and with more payload than the currently used machinery. Detractors tend to emphasize the V-22's long development schedule, its three fatal accidents, and its high cost relative to the helicopters it will replace.
Date: August 23, 2006
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

Description: This report discusses U.S. security assistance to Taiwan, or Republic of China (ROC), including policy issues for Congress and legislation. U.S. arms sales to Taiwan have been significant. In addition, the United States has expanded military ties with Taiwan after the PRC's missile firing in 1995-1996. However, there is no defense treaty or alliance with Taiwan. Several policy issues are of concern to Congress for legislation, oversight, or other action: 1) the effectiveness of the Administration in applying leverage to improve Taiwan's self-defense as well as to maintain peace and stability; 2) the role of Congress in determining security assistance, defense commitments, or policy reviews; 3) whether trends in the Taiwan Strait are stabilizing or destabilizing and how the Administration's management of policy has affected these trends; and 4) whether the United States would go to war with China and how conflict might be prevented.
Date: June 29, 2006
Creator: Kan, Shirley A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy F/A-18E/F Super Hornet and EA-18G Growler Aircraft: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: The F/A-18E/F Super Hornet is the Navy's highest priority aviation modernization program. The decision to undertake F/A-18E/F Super Hornet program was made during a period of great turbulence in Navy aviation modernization. During this time frame the Navy struggled to identify and implement the best way to modernize its aging fleet of F-14 fighters and A-6E attack aircraft. The Department of Defense is currently facing a shortage of radar and communications jamming capability. The Super Hornet has been approved for international export, but no sales have been made as of June 2006. Key issues surrounding the program relate to the total number of Super Hornets to be procured.
Date: June 8, 2006
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear Weapons: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

Description: A comprehensive test ban treaty, or CTBT, is the oldest item on the nuclear arms control agenda. These treaties currently limit testing to underground only, with a maximum force equal to 150,000 tons of TNT. Since 1997, the United States has held 22 "subcritical experiments" at the Nevada Test Site, asserting that these experiments do not violate the CTBT because they cannot produce a self-sustaining chain reaction. The Senate rejected the CTBT on October 13, 1999, and the current Administration under President George W. Bush has indicated that it will continue to oppose the CTBT, will continue to adhere to the test moratorium, is considering modifying existing warheads for use against hard and deeply-buried targets, has not ruled out resumed testing, and has no plans to test.
Date: June 21, 2006
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran's Nuclear Program: Recent Developments

Description: This report examines various issues regard Iran and its nuclear program.International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections since 2003 have revealed two decades’ worth of undeclared nuclear activities in Iran, including uranium enrichment and plutonium separation efforts. Iran agreed in 2003 to suspend sensitive activities in negotiations with Germany, France, and the UK (EU-3), which broke down in August 2005. On September 24, 2005, the IAEA Board of Governors found Iran to be in noncompliance with its Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) safeguards agreement and reported Iran’s case to the U.N. Security Council in February 2006. The Security Council called upon Iran to resuspend enrichment and reprocessing, reconsider construction of its heavy water reactor, ratify and implement the Additional Protocol, and implement transparency measures. Iran has continued its enrichment activities, failing to meet deadline after deadline. The Security Council passed UNSCR 1696 on July 31, 2006, and on December 23, 2006, the Security Council adopted limited sanctions under UNSCR 1737. The next deadline is February 23, 2007.
Date: February 9, 2007
Creator: Squassoni, Sharon
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department