Congressional Research Service Reports - 628 Matching Results

Search Results

China's Foreign Conventional Arms Acquisitions: Background and Analysis

Description: This report examines the major, foreign conventional weapon systems that China has acquired or has committed to acquire since 1990, with particular attention to implications for U.S. security concerns. It is not the assumption of this report that China’s military, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), will engage in conflict with other forces in Asia. Nonetheless, since the mid-1990s, there has been increasing concern about China’s assertiveness in Asia and greater threats against Taiwan.
Date: November 6, 2001
Creator: Kan, Shirley A.; Bolkcom, Christopher & O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran's Nuclear Program: Recent Developments

Description: This report examines various issues regard Iran and its nuclear program.International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections since 2003 have revealed two decades’ worth of undeclared nuclear activities in Iran, including uranium enrichment and plutonium separation efforts. Iran agreed in 2003 to suspend its enrichment and reprocessing activities in exchange for promises of assistance from Germany, France, and the UK (EU-3), but negotiations broke down in August 2005. On September 24, 2005, the IAEA Board of Governors found Iran to be in noncompliance with its Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) safeguards agreement (GOV/2005/77) and voted (GOV/2006/14) on February 4 to report Iran to the U.N. Security Council. The Security Council issued a presidential statement on March 29 that called upon Iran to reinstitute its voluntary suspension of enrichment and reprocessing and asked the IAEA to report on Iran’s compliance by April 28. On April 11, Iranian officials announced that they had enriched some uranium to 3.5% enrichment (fuel-grade).
Date: April 12, 2006
Creator: Squassoni, Sharon
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Arms Sales: Congressional Review Process

Description: This report reviews the process and procedures that currently apply to congressional consideration of foreign arms sales proposed by the President. This includes consideration of proposals to sell major defense equipment, defense articles and services, or the re-transfer to third party nations of such military items.
Date: December 20, 2002
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran's Nuclear Program: Recent Developments

Description: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections since 2003 have revealed almost two decades' worth of undeclared nuclear activities in Iran, including uranium enrichment and plutonium separation efforts. The Security Council called upon Iran to take steps requested of it by the IAEA Board in February -- reinstate its suspension of enrichment and reprocessing, reconsider construction of its heavy water reactor, ratify and implement the Additional Protocol, and implement transparency measures. Iran has continued enrichment activities and failed to meet the Security Council's request.
Date: July 20, 2006
Creator: Squassoni, Sharon
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2001-2008

Description: This report is provides data on conventional arms transfers to developing nations by the United States and foreign countries for the preceding eight calendar years for use in its policy oversight functions. All agreement and delivery data in this report for the United States are government-to-government Foreign Military Sales (FMS) transactions.
Date: September 4, 2009
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Missile Defense: The Current Debate

Description: This report provides background information on the Bush Administration's proposed approach toward the development and deployment of missile defense. It also discusses key related issues.
Date: December 7, 2004
Creator: Hildreth, Steven A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

National Missile Defense and Early Warning Radars: Background and Issues

Description: The Clinton Administration is scheduled to decide by Fall 2000 whether the United States should begin deploying a National Missile Defense (NMD) system.This system could achieve initial operational capability by 2005 and would be designed to protect the United States from a limited attack by intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs). As currently envisioned, the NMD system would operate as an integrated system that would rely on a variety of sensors to detect and track incoming missiles. One key program element is to upgrade the existing Early Warning Radars (EWR) so that they can detect and track the incoming missiles sooner. This report provides background information and technical details of these planned upgrades as well as their cost and schedule.
Date: August 25, 2000
Creator: Chasteen, Larry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Arms Sales: Agreements with and Deliveries to Major Clients, 2000-2007

Description: This report provides background data on United States arms sales agreements with and deliveries to its major purchasers during calendar years 2000-2007. In a series of data tables, it lists the total dollar values of U.S. government-to-government arms sales agreements with its top five purchasers in five specific regions of the world for three specific periods: 200-2003, 2004-2007, and 2007 alone, and the total dollar values of U.S. arms deliveries to its top five purchasers in those same regions and time periods. The report also provides data tables listing the total dollar values of U.S. government-to-government arms agreements with and deliveries to its top 10 purchasers worldwide for those same time periods.
Date: November 26, 2008
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy Aegis Cruiser and Destroyer Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: The Navy has begun a multi-billion dollar program to modernize its 84 existing Aegis cruisers and destroyers over a period of more than 20 years. This report explores this program in detail, including the reasons for the program and the oversight issues it poses for Congress. This report will be updated as events warrant.
Date: April 29, 2009
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy Ship Procurement: Alternative Funding Approaches -- Background and Options for Congress

Description: Some observers have proposed procuring Navy ships using incremental funding or advance appropriations rather than the traditional full funding approach that has been used to procure most Navy ships. Supporters believe these alternative funding approaches could increase stability in Navy shipbuilding plans and perhaps increase the number of Navy ships that could be built for a given total amount of ship-procurement funding. The issue for the 109th Congress is whether to maintain or change current practices for funding Navy ship procurement. Congress's decision could be significant because the full funding policy relates to Congress's power of the purse and its responsibility for conducting oversight of defense programs.
Date: June 20, 2006
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy Ship Procurement: Alternative Funding Approaches -- Background and Options for Congress

Description: Some observers have proposed procuring Navy ships using incremental funding or advance appropriations rather than the traditional full funding approach that has been used to procure most Navy ships. Supporters believe these alternative funding approaches could increase stability in Navy shipbuilding plans and perhaps increase the number of Navy ships that could be built for a given total amount of ship-procurement funding. The issue for the 109th Congress is whether to maintain or change current practices for funding Navy ship procurement. Congress's decision could be significant because the full funding policy relates to Congress's power of the purse and its responsibility for conducting oversight of defense programs.
Date: July 26, 2006
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Project BioShield

Description: Many potential biological terrorism agents lack available countermeasures. President Bush proposed Project BioShield to address this need and signed into law on July 21, 2004 S. 15 (The Project BioShield Act of 2004). The main provisions of this law include (1) relaxing procedures for bioterrorism-related procurement, hiring, and awarding of research grants; (2) guaranteeing a federal government market for new biomedical countermeasures; and (3) permitting emergency use of unapproved countermeasures.
Date: September 27, 2006
Creator: Gottron, Frank
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Project BioShield

Description: Many potential biological terrorism agents lack available countermeasures. President Bush proposed Project BioShield to address this need and signed into law on July 21, 2004 S. 15 (The Project BioShield Act of 2004). The main provisions of this law include (1) relaxing procedures for bioterrorism-related procurement, hiring, and awarding of research grants; (2) guaranteeing a federal government market for new biomedical countermeasures; and (3) permitting emergency use of unapproved countermeasures.
Date: June 5, 2006
Creator: Gottron, Frank
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS): Background and Issues for Congress

Description: The Navy's proposed FY2007 budget requests $521 million to procure two Littoral Combat Ships (LCSs). The House-reported version of the FY2007 defense appropriations bill recommends approval of this request. The Senate-reported version recommends funding one LCS in FY2007 and rescinding funding for one of the three LCSs procured in FY2006. For a longer discussion of the LCS program, see CRS Report RL32109, Navy DDG-1000 (DD(X)), CG(X), and LCS Ship Acquisition Programs: Oversight Issues and Options for Congress, by Ronald O'Rourke.
Date: August 18, 2006
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Nuclear Weapons: Changes in Policy and Force Structure

Description: The Bush Administration conducted a review of U.S. nuclear weapons force posture during its first year in office. Although the review sought to adjust U.S. nuclear posture to address changes in the international security environment at the start of the new century, it continued many of the policies and programs that had been a part of the U.S. nuclear posture during the previous decade and during the Cold War. This report, which will be updated as needed, provides an overview of the U.S. nuclear posture to highlight areas of change and areas of continuity.
Date: August 10, 2006
Creator: Woolf, Amy F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

V-22 Osprey Tilt-Rotor Aircraft

Description: The V-22 Osprey is a tilt-rotor aircraft, capable of vertical or short take off and landing, with forward flight like a conventional fixed-wing aircraft. The MV-22 is the Marine Corps' top aviation priority. Marine Corps leaders believe that the Osprey will provide them an unprecedented capability to quickly and decisively project power from well over the horizon. The V-22 program has been under development for over 25 years. Safety and maintenance concerns have arisen over this period. Supporters tout the V-22's potential operational capabilities relative to the helicopters it will replace. It will fly faster, farther, and with more payload than the currently used machinery. Detractors tend to emphasize the V-22's long development schedule, its three fatal accidents, and its high cost relative to the helicopters it will replace.
Date: August 23, 2006
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department