Congressional Research Service Reports - Browse

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United States Lifts Remaining Restrictions on Arms Sales to Vietnam
This report discusses the recent removal of remaining U.S. restrictions on sales of lethal weapons and related services to Vietnam. During the Vietnam War (1955-1975), the United States imposed a complete embargo on arms sales to North Vietnam, and then expanded it to cover the entire country after Communist forces defeated U.S-backed South Vietnamese government in 1975. In 2007, the Bush Administration eased the ban by allowing non-lethal defense items and defense services to be exported on a case-by-case basis.
Trends in Conventional Arms Transfers to the Third World by Major Supplier, 1980-1987
No Description Available.
Trends in Conventional Arms Transfers to the Third World by Major Supplier, 1980-1987
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Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
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Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
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Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description Available.
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
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Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
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Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
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Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
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Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
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Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
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Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
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Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
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Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
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Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description Available.
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description Available.
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description Available.
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description Available.
Russian Fighter Aircraft Industrial Base: Parallels with the United States?
No Description Available.
Arms Sales: Congressional Review Process
This report reviews the process and procedures that currently apply to congressional consideration of foreign arms sales proposed by the President. This includes consideration of proposals to sell major defense equipment, defense articles and services, or the re-transfer to third party nations of such military items.
China's Foreign Conventional Arms Acquisitions: Background and Analysis
This report examines the major, foreign conventional weapon systems that China has acquired or has committed to acquire since 1990, with particular attention to implications for U.S. security concerns. It is not the assumption of this report that China’s military, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), will engage in conflict with other forces in Asia. Nonetheless, since the mid-1990s, there has been increasing concern about China’s assertiveness in Asia and greater threats against Taiwan.
China's Foreign Conventional Arms Acquisitions: Background and Analysis
This report examines the major, foreign conventional weapon systems that China has acquired or has committed to acquire since 1990, with particular attention to implications for U.S. security concerns. It is not the assumption of this report that China’s military, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), will engage in conflict with other forces in Asia. Nonetheless, since the mid-1990s, there has been increasing concern about China’s assertiveness in Asia and greater threats against Taiwan.
Assessing the Options for Preserving ICBM Survivability
The decision on how to redress the perceived vulnerability of U.S. intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMS) is the most controversial strategic nuclear weapon decision now facing the 97th Congress. A full-scale debate on this issue, especially as regards MX missile basing, seems certain. To assist Members of Congress in the debate, this paper discusses nine proposals for treating ICBM survivability: Recognize that ICBMs are invulnerable, rely only on bombers and submarines for deterrence, deploy a large or scaled-down shell-game multiple shelter system, defend MX with anti ballistic missiles, launch ICBMs on warning of attack, deploy MX on aircraft or small submarines, and diversify strategic forces, perhaps using small ICBMs.
Navy Ship Names: Background for Congress
This report discusses the process of naming Navy ships, which have traditionally been chosen and announced by the Secretary of the Navy.
Conventional Prompt Global Strike and Long-Range Ballistic Missiles: Background and Issues
This report provides an overview of the rationale for the Prompt Global Strike (PGS) mission and the possible deployment of conventional warheads on long-range ballistic missiles or boost-glide systems. It also reviews the Air Force and Navy efforts to develop these systems and summarizes congressional reaction to these proposals, then provides a more detailed account of the issues raised by these concepts and programs.
Navy Ship Names: Background for Congress
This report discusses the process of naming Navy ships, which have traditionally been chosen and announced by the Secretary of the Navy.
Rare Earth Elements in National Defense: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress
This report covers concerns that Congress has expressed over U.S. acquisition of rare earth elements, particularly those used in various components of defense weapon systems. Specific concerns are the acquisition of these elements, especially from foreign sources such as China; how dependence of foreign sources affects national security; and methods for decreasing the relationship between reliance on foreign sources and national security.
Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2002-2009
This report provides Congress with official, unclassified, quantitative data on conventional arms transfers to developing nations by the United States and foreign countries for the preceding eight calendar years for use in its policy oversight functions.
Navy Ship Names: Background for Congress
This report discusses the process of naming Navy ships, which have traditionally been chosen and announced by the Secretary of the Navy.
Major U.S. Arms Sales and Grants to Pakistan Since 2001
A brief listing of major arms sales and grants made to Pakistan since 2001.
Iran's Ballistic Missile Programs: An Overview
This report seeks to provide an overview of the reported or suspected variety of Iranian ballistic missile programs. Because there remains widespread public divergence over particulars, however, this report does not provide specificity to what Iran may or may not have, or is in the process of developing.
Syria's Chemical Weapons: Progress and Continuing Challenges
This report briefly covers the formal declaration and subsequent destruction of Syria's chemical weapons program. The report also mentions newer allegations of further use of chemical weapons that did not fall under the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) ban.
Nuclear Weapons R&D Organizations in Nine Nations
This report describes the organizations controlling research and development (R&D) on nuclear weapons (i.e., nuclear explosive devices, as distinct from the bombers and missiles that carry them) in these nations, and presents a brief history of the organizations controlling nuclear weapons R&D in the United States. It discusses whether these organizations are civilian or military, though in many nations the lines between civilian and military are blurred.
Nuclear Weapons R&D Organizations in Nine Nations
This report describes the organizations controlling research and development (R&D) on nuclear weapons (i.e., nuclear explosive devices, as distinct from the bombers and missiles that carry them) in these nations, and presents a brief history of the organizations controlling nuclear weapons R&D in the United States. It discusses whether these organizations are civilian or military, though in many nations the lines between civilian and military are blurred.
Navy Ship Names: Background for Congress
This report discusses the process of naming Navy ships, which have traditionally been chosen and announced by the Secretary of the Navy.
Nuclear Weapons R&D Organizations in Nine Nations
This report describes the organizations controlling research and development (R&D) on nuclear weapons in several nations, and presents a brief history of the organizations controlling nuclear weapons R&D in the United States. It discusses whether these organizations are civilian or military, though in many nations the lines between civilian and military are blurred.
Army Future Combat System (FCS) "Spin- Outs" and Ground Combat Vehicle (GCV): Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the Future Combat System (FCS), which was a multiyear, multibillion dollar program at the heart of the Army's transformation efforts.
Conventional Prompt Global Strike and Long-Range Ballistic Missiles: Background and Issues
Prompt global strike (PGS) would allow the United States to strike targets anywhere on earth with conventional weapons in as little as an hour. This report provides an overview of the rationale for the PGS mission and the possible deployment of conventional warheads on long-range ballistic missiles in support of this mission. It then reviews the Air Force and Navy efforts to develop these systems. It summarizes congressional reaction to these proposals, then provides a more detailed account of the issues raised by these concepts and programs.
Conventional Prompt Global Strike and Long-Range Ballistic Missiles: Background and Issues
Prompt global strike (PGS) would allow the United States to strike targets anywhere on Earth with conventional weapons in as little as an hour. This capability may bolster U.S. efforts to deter and defeat adversaries by allowing the United States to attack high-value targets or “fleeting targets” at the start of or during a conflict. Congress has generally supported the PGS mission, but it has restricted funding and suggested some changes in funding for specific programs. Some concerns that Congress has shown are the Department of Defenses' rationale for the mission, the Air Force's ability to set up the system in a timely manner, and how the new START Treaty between the US and Russia will affect the system.
Conventional Prompt Global Strike and Long-Range Ballistic Missiles: Background and Issues
This report looks at why prompt global strike (PGS) missiles are beneficial to the U.S. and how they can help contribute to a conventional prompt global strike (CPGS) mission.
Conventional Prompt Global Strike and Long-Range Ballistic Missiles: Background and Issues
This report looks at why prompt global strike (PGS) missiles are beneficial to the U.S., and how they can help contribute to a conventional prompt global strike (CPGS) mission.
Conventional Prompt Global Strike and Long-Range Ballistic Missiles: Background and Issues
Prompt global strike (PGS) would allow the United States to strike targets anywhere on Earth with conventional weapons in as little as an hour. This report looks at some concerns that Congress has shown for the PGS program, including the Department of Defenses' rationale for the mission, the Air Force's ability to set up the system in a timely manner, and how the new START Treaty between the US and Russia will affect the system.
Conventional Prompt Global Strike and Long-Range Ballistic Missiles: Background and Issues
Prompt global strike (PGS) would allow the United States to strike targets anywhere on earth with conventional weapons in as little as an hour. This report provides an overview of the rationale for the PGS mission and the possible deployment of conventional warheads on long-range ballistic missiles in support of this mission. It then reviews the Air Force and Navy efforts to develop these systems. It summarizes congressional reaction to these proposals, then provides a more detailed account of the issues raised by these concepts and programs.
The Reliable Replacement Warhead Program: Background and Current Developments
This report describes the Life Extension Program (LEP), difficulties ascribed to it by its critics, and their responses; shows how changed post-Cold War constraints might open opportunities to improve long-term warhead maintenance and reach other goals; describes the Reliable Replacement Warhead (RRW) and its pros and cons; tracks RRW program developments and congressional action on budget requests; and presents options and issues for Congress.
The Army's M-4 Carbine: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses possible replacements for the M-4 carbine, most notably the Special Operations Combat Assault Rifle (SCAR). This report also details results of studies and tests of the M-4 and feedback response from potential competitors.
Rare Earth Elements in National Defense: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress
Some Members of Congress have expressed concern over U.S. acquisition of rare earth materials composed of rare earth elements used in various components of defense weapon systems. On March 13, 2012, President Obama announced that the United States had joined with Japan and the European Union to bring a World Trade Organization joint dispute resolution case against China because of China's restrictive policies on rare earths and other minerals. Congress may encourage DOD to develop a collaborative, long-term, well-thought-out strategy designed to identify any material weaknesses and vulnerabilities associated with rare earths and to protect long-term U.S. national security interests.
Navy Ford (CVN-78) Class Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the CVN-78 program. CVN-78, CVN-79, and CVN-80 are the first three ships in the Navy's new Gerald R. Ford (CVN- 78) class of nuclear-powered aircraft carriers (CVNs).
Navy Ship Names: Background for Congress
This report discusses the process of naming Navy ships, which have traditionally been chosen and announced by the Secretary of the Navy. Congress in recent years has proposed, and sometimes passed, legislation regarding the naming of specific ships.
Navy Ship Names: Background for Congress
This report discusses the process of naming Navy ships, which have traditionally been chosen and announced by the Secretary of the Navy. Congress in recent years has proposed, and sometimes passed, legislation regarding the naming of specific ships.