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Trade Issues in the 103rd Congress

Description: Trade and trade-related issues are prominent parts of the agenda of the 103rd Congress. The Congress has already acted on some issues, in particular the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). It will have to consider legislation to implement the trade agreements reached during the Uruguay Round of the GATT, which was completed on Dec. 15,1993.
Date: December 17, 1993
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Trade: Proposals to Reorganize the Trade Policy Structure

Description: Several bills have been introduced in the 104th Congress to reorganize the trade policymaking structure of the executive branch. More bills are likely to be introduced. These proposals are a direct result of efforts within the Congress to dismantle the Department of Commerce. Concurrent Budget Resolution for FY1996 (Con.Res. 67), which was passed on June 29, 1995, expresses the sense of the Congress that the Commerce Department should be eliminated. Whatever the fate of the Commerce Department, a consensus appears to be emerging within the Congress that Commerce's trade functions should be preserved in some form.
Date: November 20, 1995
Creator: Cooper, William H. & Morrison, Wayne M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Unemployment Compensation: Benefits While on Leave for the Birth or Adoption of a Child

Description: The Temporary Extended Unemployment Compensation Act of 2002 (TEUC), was signed into law March 9, 2002, as a part of P.L. 107-147. TEUC provides up to 13 weeks of additional federally funded unemployment compensation (UC) to individuals in all states who exhaust their regular UC benefits. TEUC also provides a second 13 weeks of benefits to individuals who exhaust their benefits in a high-unemployment state. On January 8, 2003, Congress passed S. 23 (P.L. 108-1) extending the TEUC program through May 31, 2003, and phasing-out benefits through August 30,2003. This report will be updated as events warrant.
Date: June 30, 2004
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trade Remedies: “New Shipper” Reviews

Description: Trade remedies are government measures to minimize the adverse impact of imports on domestic industries. Antidumping duties are used to counter the effects of importssold at unfairly low prices on the domestic market. Countervailing duties are used to counter the price effects of imports that benefit from government subsidies in the exporting countries. Safeguard remedies (also called Section 201 and escape clause remedies) are used to reduce the injurious impact of surges in fairly trade imports.
Date: October 12, 2006
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Veterans’ Benefits Issues in the 109th Congress

Description: This report presents a brief overview of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) programs for veterans as well as some of the issues that have been or likely will be subjects of congressional attention during the 109th Congress. In particular, it outlines the veterans benefits provisions that have seen legislative action. Issues concerning the Veterans Health Administration and health care issues are discussed in a companion report, CRS Report RL32961, Veterans’ Health Care Issues in the 109th Congress, by Sidath Viranga Panangala.
Date: January 16, 2007
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Veterans and Smoking-Related Illnesses: Congress Enacts Limits to Compensation

Description: With enactment of P.L. 105-178 (H.R. 2400), the Transportation Equity Act for the 21 Century (TEA-21), Congress limited authority of the Department of Veterans st Affairs (VA) to grant service-connected compensation to veterans who, after the enactment date, claim that their smoking-related illnesses are traceable to tobacco use that began during their military service. P.L. 105-178's prohibition on most smokingrelated VA claims is the resolution of an issue with potentially explosive federal costs. Subsequent technical amendments included in P.L. 105-205, the Internal Revenue Service reform legislation, removed the implication that smoking may have been misconduct, and made other minor clarifications.
Date: August 13, 1998
Creator: Snook, Dennis W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Value-Added Tax Contrasted With a National Sales Tax

Description: Some Members of Congress have expressed interest in the feasibility of using a value-added tax (VAT) to either replace all or part of the income tax or finance health care reform. A VAT is imposed at all levels of production on the differences between firms’ sales and their purchases from all other firms. Policymakers may be interested in the following aspects of a VAT: revenue yield, international comparison of composition of taxes, vertical equity, neutrality, inflation, balance-of-trade, national saving, administrative cost, intergovernmental relations, size of government, and public opinion.
Date: February 1, 2008
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Value-Added Tax Contrasted With a National Sales Tax

Description: Some Members of Congress have expressed interest in the feasibility of using a value-added tax (VAT) to either replace all or part of the income tax or finance health care reform. A VAT is imposed at all levels of production on the differences between firms’ sales and their purchases from all other firms. Policymakers may be interested in the following aspects of a VAT: revenue yield, international comparison of composition of taxes, vertical equity, neutrality, inflation, balance-of-trade, national saving, administrative cost, intergovernmental relations, size of government, and public opinion.
Date: December 10, 2003
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement: Effects After Five Years

Description: This report provides an overview of the major trade and economic effects of the U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement (FTA) (P.L. 108-78), from the time that it went into effect (January 1, 2004) over the three years ending in 2006. It also includes detailed information on key provisions of the agreement and legislative action.
Date: March 26, 2010
Creator: Nanto, Dick K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

What's the Difference?--Comparing U.S. and Chinese Trade Data

Description: This report provides a comparison of U.S. and Chinese trade data. U.S. trade with the People's Republic of China (China) is becoming increasingly contentious as the U.S. bilateral trade deficit rises. Debate over this trade deficit is hampered because of disagreement between the two countries on how large the deficit actually is. According to official U.S. figures, China has surpassed Canada as the largest supplier of U.S. imports.
Date: March 27, 2009
Creator: Martin, Michael F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

What's the Difference?--Comparing U.S. and Chinese Trade Data

Description: This report provides a comparison of U.S. and Chinese trade data. The U.S. trade deficit with the People's Republic of China (China) remains a major source of bilateral tension. Members of Congress and other U.S. government officials often point to the bilateral trade imbalance as evidence that China is not competing fairly in the global market.
Date: April 21, 2010
Creator: Martin, Michael F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trade Primer: Qs and As on Trade Concepts, Performance, and Policy

Description: The 112th Congress has a full legislative and oversight agenda on international trade. The agenda may include considering legislation to implement pending free trade agreements with Panama, South Korea, and Colombia, enhanced enforcement of U.S. trade agreements, as well as oversight of the World Trade Organization's Doha Round and trade relations with China. This report provides information and context for many of these topics. The report is divided into four sections in a question-and-answer format: trade concepts, U.S. trade performance, formulation of U.S. trade policy, and trade and investment issues.
Date: January 5, 2011
Creator: Ahearn, Raymond J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trade Primer: Qs and As on Trade Concepts, Performance, and Policy

Description: This report is divided into four sections in a question-and-answer format: trade concepts, U.S. trade performance, formulation of U.S. trade policy, and trade and investment issues. The first section on "Trade Concepts" deals with why countries trade, the consequences of trade expansion, and the relationship between globalization and trade. The second section, on trade performance, focuses on the U.S. trade deficit and its impact on industries. The third section deals with the roles played by the Executive Branch, Congress, the private sector, and the Judiciary in the formulation of U.S. trade policy. The fourth section, on U.S. trade and investment policy, asks questions related to trade negotiations and agreements and to imports, exports, and investments.
Date: December 8, 2010
Creator: Ahearn, Raymond J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Trade with Free Trade Agreement (FTA) Partners

Description: This report presents data on U.S. merchandise (goods) trade with its Free Trade Agreement (FTA) partner countries. The data are presented to show bilateral trade balances for individual FTA partners and groups of countries representing such major agreements as the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the Central American Free Trade Agreement and Dominican Republic (CAFTA-DR) relative to total U.S. trade balances.
Date: May 21, 2015
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trade Primer: Qs and As on Trade Concepts, Performance, and Policy

Description: The 112th Congress has a full legislative and oversight agenda on international trade. The agenda so far has included approval of legislation to implement free trade agreements with Colombia, Panama, and South Korea, and may take up enhanced enforcement of U.S. trade agreements, as well as Russia's accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) and Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) status, oversight of the World Trade Organization's Doha Round, and trade relations with China. This report provides information and context for many of these topics. It is divided into four sections in a question-and-answer format: trade concepts; U.S. trade performance; formulation of U.S. trade policy; and trade and investment issues. Additional suggested readings are provided in an appendix.
Date: April 16, 2012
Creator: Hornbeck, J. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

International Trade: Rules of Origin

Description: This report deals with Rules of origin (ROO) in three parts. First, we describe in more detail the reasons that country of origin rules are important and briefly describe U.S. laws and methods that provide direction in making these determinations. Second, we discuss briefly some of the more controversial issues involving rules of origin, including the apparently subjective nature of some CBP origin determinations, and the effects of the global manufacturing process on ROO. Third, we conclude with some alternatives and options that Congress could consider that might assist in simplifying the process.
Date: January 5, 2012
Creator: Jones, Vivian C. & Martin, Michael F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of Buy America on Transportation Infrastructure and U.S. Manufacturing: Policy Options

Description: This report begins by explaining Buy America restrictions in more detail. It describes how Buy America comports with international trade agreements that generally forbid procurement restrictions favoring domestic products; and how a relatively new provision enacted by Congress may require imports of materials on federally-funded transportation projects to be carried on U.S.-flag ships. The report identifies policy options Congress might consider in light of recent legislative proposals.
Date: June 14, 2017
Creator: Platzer, Michaela D. & Mallett, William J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Section 301 of The Trade Act of 1974, As Amended: Its Operation and Issues Involving its Use by the United States

Description: This report describes the Section 301 process (including the related Special 301 and Super 301 processes) and examines questions that arise from its use. Section 301 is one of the principal means by whichthe United States attempts to combat unfair trading practices and enforce U.S. rights under trade agreements
Date: August 17, 2000
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department