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Agricultural Trade Issues in the 107th Congress
The 107th Congress is considering trade issues with implications for the U.S. agricultural sector. Trade in agricultural commodities and food products affects farm income and rural employment, and it also generates economic activity beyond the farm gate. With agricultural export sales the equivalent of one-quarter of farm income, some policymakers view U.S. efforts to develop market opportunities overseas as vital to the sector’s financial health. Decisions taken by the Bush Administration, and actions taken by Congress, thus will affect the outlook for agricultural trade.
Agricultural Trade Issues in the 107th Congress
The 107th Congress is considering trade issues with implications for the U.S. agricultural sector. Trade in agricultural commodities and food products affects farm income and rural employment, and it also generates economic activity beyond the farm gate. With agricultural export sales the equivalent of one-quarter of farm income, some policymakers view U.S. efforts to develop market opportunities overseas as vital to the sector’s financial health. Decisions taken by the Bush Administration, and actions taken by Congress, thus will affect the outlook for agricultural trade.
Agricultural Trade Issues in the 107th Congress
The 107th Congress is considering trade issues with implications for the U.S. agricultural sector. Trade in agricultural commodities and food products affects farm income and rural employment, and it also generates economic activity beyond the farm gate. With agricultural export sales the equivalent of one-quarter of farm income, some policymakers view U.S. efforts to develop market opportunities overseas as vital to the sector’s financial health. Decisions taken by the Bush Administration, and actions taken by Congress, thus will affect the outlook for agricultural trade.
Agricultural Trade in the 106th Congress: A Review of Issues
The 106th Congress considered a number of trade policy developments against a backdrop of weak foreign demand and large world supplies of agricultural commodities. The U.S. Department of Agriculture reports that the value of U.S. agricultural exports fell between FY1996 (a record year) and FY1999 by almost $11 billion, to $49.2 billion. Agricultural exports did climb back to $50.9 billion in FY2000, and are now projected at $53 billion in FY2001. However, the pace of recovery concerned many agricultural groups and their supporters in Congress. Although they recognize that many world economic, farm production, political, and weather factors influence exports, many of these groups believe that the agricultural sector's future prosperity also depends upon such U.S. trade policies as: 1) encouraging China's entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO), with its binding rules and responsibilities; 2) exempting agricultural exports from U.S. unilateral economic sanctions; 3) fully using export and food aid programs; and 4) aggressively battling foreign-imposed barriers to the movement of U.S. farm products. A few U.S. farm groups are wary of such approaches.
Agricultural Trade Issues in the 106th Congress
Agricultural interests have been following trade policy developments against a backdrop of weak foreign demand and large world supplies of agricultural products. The U.S. Department of Agriculture reports that the value of U.S. agricultural exports fell between FY1996 (a record year) and FY1999 by almost $11 billion. USDA forecasts agricultural exports at $50.5 billion in FY2000 and $51.5 billion in FY2001. However, the projected agricultural trade surpluses for those years, of $11.5 billion and $12 billion, would be less than half the FY1996 surplus of $27.2 billion. Many agricultural groups and their supporters in Congress believe that the sector's future prosperity depends upon such U.S. trade policies as: 1) encouraging China's entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO), with its binding rules and responsibilities; 2) exempting agriculture from U.S. unilateral economic sanctions; 3) fully using export and food aid programs; and 4) aggressively battling foreign-imposed barriers to the movement of U.S. farm products. A few U.S. farm groups are wary of such approaches.
U.S.- Thailand Free Trade Agreement Negotiations
This report examines Thailand’s economy and trade orientation, the scope and significance of the U.S.-Thai commercial relationship, and the likely top issues in the negotiations. The report concludes with a short summary of the Congressional role and interest in the FTA.
A Free Trade Area of the Americas: Status of Negotiations and Major Policy Issues
At the second Summit of the Americas in Santiago, Chile (April 1998), 34 Western Hemisphere nations agreed to initiate formal negotiations to create a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) by 2005. The negotiating groups completed a draft agreement in January 2001, which was presented at the third Summit of the Americas held in Quebec City on April 20-22, 2001. President Bush expressed strong support for the FTAA and concrete progress has been made in moving it forward. Yet, differences in priorities among the countries are becoming increasingly evident, suggesting that the FTAA faces many policy hurdles in both the U.S. Congress and the hemisphere.
A Free Trade Area of the Americas: Status of Negotiations and Major Policy Issues
In 1994, 34 Western Hemisphere nations met at the first Summit of the Americas, envisioning a plan to create a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) by January 2005. Nine years later, the third draft text of an agreement is being readied for the eighth trade ministerial scheduled for November 17-21, 2003 in Miami. However, serious differences between Brazil and the United States, similar to those that led to the collapse of the September 2003 WTO talks in Cancún, Mexico, invite a cautious assessment. The Miami ministerial may determine if the FTAA negotiations proceed on time and with the goal of achieving a comprehensive agreement, as first conceived. The 108th Congress will likely follow developments closely as it exercises its expanded consultative and oversight role per the Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) provisions of the Trade Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-210). This report will be updated periodically.
A Free Trade Area of the Americas: Status of Negotiations and Major Policy Issues
At the second Summit of the Americas in Santiago, Chile (April 1998), 34 Western Hemisphere nations agreed to initiate formal negotiations to create a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) by 2005. The negotiating groups completed a draft agreement in January 2001, which was presented at the third Summit of the Americas held in Quebec City on April 20-22, 2001. President Bush expressed strong support for the FTAA and concrete progress has been made in moving it forward. Yet, differences in priorities among the negotiating countries are still evident, suggesting that the FTAA faces many policy hurdles in both the U.S. Congress and the hemisphere.
Industry Trade Effects Related to NAFTA
No Description Available.
Industry Trade Effects Related to NAFTA
No Description Available.
Agriculture in the WTO: Policy Commitments Made Under the Agreement on Agriculture
This report provides a review of the major agricultural policy commitments made by members of the World Trade Organization (WTO) during the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations completed in 1994, and the legal text that underlies those commitments. Most agricultural support commitments are embodied in the Agreement on Agriculture and it is the essential focus of this review. However, references are made to additional supporting legal texts that emerged as part of the Uruguay Round Agreement, as well as to related studies and references produced by the WTO, its member countries, and international organizations interested in trade and development.
A Free Trade Area of the Americas: Status of Negotiations and Major Policy Issues
At the second Summit of theAmericas in Santiago,Chile (April 1998), 34 Western Hemisphere nations agreed to initiate formal negotiations to create a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) by 2005. The process so far has led to two draft texts, with a third draft expected to be completed for the eighth trade ministerial scheduled for November 17-21, 2003 in Miami. Currently there are serious differences between Brazil and the United States, the co-chairs of the trade negotiating committee, which will need to be resolved by then. Although implementing legislation is not anticipated until the next Congress, for an FTAA to be signed in January 2005, the 108th Congress will play a crucial role during this last phase of the negotiations given its expanded consultative and oversight authority as defined in the Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) provisions of the Trade Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-210). This report will be updated periodically.
A Free Trade Area of the Americas: Status of Negotiations and Major Policy Issues
In 1994, 34 Western Hemisphere nations met at the first Summit of the Americas, envisioning a plan to create a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) by January 2005. Nine years later, the third draft text of an agreement is being readied for the eighth trade ministerial scheduled for November 17-21, 2003 in Miami. However, serious differences between Brazil and the United States, similar to those that led to the collapse of the September 2003 WTO talks in Cancún, Mexico, invite a cautious assessment. The Miami ministerial may determine if the FTAA negotiations proceed on time and with the goal of achieving a comprehensive agreement, as first conceived. The 108th Congress has followed developments closely as it exercises its expanded consultative and oversight role per the Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) provisions of the Trade Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-210). This report will be updated periodically.
A Free Trade Area of the Americas: Major Policy Issues and Status of Negotiations
In 1994, 34 Western Hemisphere nations met at the first Summit of the Americas, envisioning a plan for completing a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) by January 1, 2005. Nine years later, the third draft text of the agreement was presented at the November 2003 Miami trade ministerial. The Ministerial Declaration, negotiated largely by the two co-chairs, Brazil and the United States, took the FTAA in a new direction, away from the comprehensive, single undertaking principle, toward a two-tier framework comprising a set of “common rights and obligations” for all countries, augmented by voluntary plurilateral arrangements with country benefits related to commitments. A follow-up meeting in early 2004 in Puebla, Mexico was unable to clarify this concept, highlighting the deep differences that remained between the United States and Brazil. FTAA talks subsequently stalled and the original January 1, 2005 deadline was missed. In the meantime, both Brazil and the United States are pursuing subregional trade pacts that may further complicate the negotiation process. Talks between Brazil and the United States may resume in early 2005, but it is still unclear if significant progress can be made on the FTAA this year.
A Free Trade Area of the Americas: Major Policy Issues and Status of Negotiations
In 1994, 34 Western Hemisphere nations met at the first Summit of the Americas, envisioning a plan for completing a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) by January 1, 2005. Nine years later, the third draft text of the agreement was presented at the November 2003 Miami trade ministerial. The Ministerial Declaration, negotiated largely by the two co-chairs, Brazil and the United States, took the FTAA in a new direction, away from the comprehensive, single undertaking principle, toward a two-tier framework comprising a set of “common rights and obligations” for all countries, augmented by voluntary plurilateral arrangements with country benefits related to commitments. A follow-up meeting in early 2004 in Puebla, Mexico was unable to clarify this concept, highlighting the deep differences that remained between the United States and Brazil. FTAA talks subsequently stalled and the original January 1, 2005 deadline was missed. In the meantime, both Brazil and the United States are pursuing subregional trade pacts that may further complicate the negotiation process. Talks between Brazil and the United States may resume in early 2005, but it is still unclear if significant progress can be made on the FTAA this year.
A Free Trade Area of the Americas: Status of Negotiations and Major Policy Issues
In 1994, 34 Western Hemisphere nations met at the first Summit of the Americas, envisioning a plan for a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) by January 2005. Nine years later, the third draft text of the agreement was presented at the Miami trade ministerial held November 20-21, 2003. Deep differences remain unresolved, however, and, as reflected in the Ministerial Declaration, have taken the FTAA in a new direction. It calls for a two-tier framework comprising a set of “common rights and obligations” for all countries, augmented by voluntary plurilateral arrangements with country benefits related to commitments. A follow-up meeting in Puebla, Mexico was unable to clarify the details of this arrangement and negotiations will continue in late April 2004, when it is hoped that specific commitments will be defined. This report provides background and analysis for Congress on the proposed FTAA and will be updated.
A Free Trade Area of the Americas: Status of Negotiations and Major Policy Issues
At the second Summit of the Americas in Santiago, Chile (April 1998), 34 Western Hemisphere nations agreed to initiate formal negotiations to create a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) by 2005. The process so far has led to two draft texts, the second completed for the November 1, 2002 trade ministerial in Quito, Ecuador. The many sections of “bracketed” text indicate that there are still significant differences to be worked out. Although implementing legislation is not anticipated until the next Congress at the earliest, for an FTAA agreement to be signed in January 2005, the 108th Congress, having an expanded oversight authority as defined in the Trade Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-210), will play a crucial role during this last phase of the FTAA negotiations. This report will be updated periodically.
A Free Trade Area of the Americas: Status of Negotiations and Major Policy Issues
At the second Summit of the Americas in Santiago, Chile (April 1998), 34 Western Hemisphere nations agreed to initiate formal negotiations to create a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) by 2005. The process so far has led to two draft texts, the second completed for the November 1, 2002 trade ministerial in Quito, Ecuador. A year later, the third draft is expected at the eighth trade ministerial scheduled for November 17-21, 2003 in Miami. Although implementing legislation is not anticipated until the next Congress, for an FTAA to be signed in January 2005, the 108th Congress will play a crucial role during this last phase of the negotiations given its expanded consultative and oversight authority as defined in the Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) provisions of the Trade Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-210). This report will be updated periodically.
A Free Trade Area of the Americas: Status of Negotiations and Major Policy Issues
At the second Summit of the Americas in Santiago, Chile (April 1998), 34 Western Hemisphere nations agreed to initiate formal negotiations to create a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) by 2005. The process so far has led to two draft texts, with a third draft expected to be completed for the eighth trade ministerial scheduled for November 17-21, 2003 in Miami. Currently there are serious differences between Brazil and the United States, the co-chairs of the trade negotiating committee, which will need to be resolved by then. Although implementing legislation is not anticipated until the next Congress, for an FTAA to be signed in January 2005, the 108th Congress will play a crucial role during this last phase of the negotiations given its expanded consultative and oversight authority as defined in the Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) provisions of the Trade Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-210). This report will be updated periodically.
Agricultural Trade Issues in the 107th Congress
The 107th Congress is considering trade issues with implications for the U.S. agricultural sector. Trade in agricultural commodities and food products affects farm income and rural employment, and it also generates economic activity beyond the farm gate. With agricultural export sales the equivalent of one-quarter of farm income, some policymakers view U.S. efforts to develop market opportunities overseas as vital to the sector’s financial health. Decisions taken by the Bush Administration, and actions taken by Congress, thus will affect the outlook for agricultural trade.
Agricultural Trade Issues in the 107th Congress
The 107th Congress is considering trade issues with implications for the U.S. agricultural sector. Trade in agricultural commodities and food products affects farm income and rural employment, and it also generates economic activity beyond the farm gate. With agricultural export sales the equivalent of one-quarter of farm income, some policymakers view U.S. efforts to develop market opportunities overseas as vital to the sector’s financial health. Decisions taken by the Bush Administration, and actions taken by Congress, thus will affect the outlook for agricultural trade.
Changing Causes of the U.S. Trade Deficit
The nation’s trade deficit is equal to the imbalance between national investment and national saving. The borrowing needs of the U.S. private sector declined, the public sector borrowing needs increased, and a stable U.S. national saving investment gap continued to be filled by foreign lending as a result. This is largely the result of a few Asian countries purchasing U.S. assets to mitigate or prevent their currencies from appreciating against the dollar.
Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than Treaties
This report briefly discusses the process used to enact U.S. trade agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), World Trade Organization agreements, and bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs). In each case these agreements have been approved by majority vote of each house rather than by two-thirds vote of the Senate - that is, they have been treated as congressional-executive agreements rather than as treaties.
Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) Negotiations
This report provides: (1) context for the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) negotiations; (2) analysis of possible trade and investment issues in the negotiations; and (3) discussion of issues for Congress. The U.S.-EU negotiations on TTIP are not public, however, the information and analysis in this report on issues in the negotiations are based on publicly-available information.
The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Meetings in Vladivostok, Russia: A Preview
Russia will host the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation's (APEC) week-long series of senior-level meetings in Vladivostok on September 2-9, 2012. The main event for the week will be the 20th APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting to be held September 8-9, 2012. This report looks at the main points of this meeting as they relate to the U.S.
Europe's Preferential Trade Agreements: Status, Content, and Implications
This report explores intersecting issues regarding Europe's preferential trade agreements (PTA) in three parts. The first section discusses the status and primary motivations of the EU's PTAs currently in place or under negotiation. The second compares the content and trade coverage of Europe's PTAs to U.S. PTAs. A third section assesses the implications of the EU's PTA program for the multilateral trading system and U.S. trade policy. A concluding section evaluates future directions for Europe's PTA policy.
Trade Reorganization: Overview and Issues for Congress
Report that discusses: President Obama's trade reorganization proposal; the context of the trade reorganization debate; key issues that Congress may face related to the debate; potential policy options for Congress; and the outlook for trade reorganization.
Trade Promotion Authority and the U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement
This report looks at the effects of the Korean Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA) on side agreements via the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
U.S. Trade and Investment Relations with sub-Saharan Africa and the African Growth and Opportunity Act
Report that examines African economic trends and U.S. trade and investment flows with SSA. It discusses the provisions of AGOA and the changes that have occurred since its enactment. It concludes with a brief discussion of issues for Congress.
U.S. Trade and Investment Relations with sub-Saharan Africa and the African Growth and Opportunity Act
This report looks at the pros and cons of recent legislation brought up in the 112th Congress, including the renewal of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) and how it will affect trade between the U.S. and sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).
Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties
This report briefly discusses the process used to enact U.S. trade agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), World Trade Organization agreements, and bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs). In each case these agreements have been approved by majority vote of each house rather than by two-thirds vote of the Senate - that is, they have been treated as congressional-executive agreements rather than as treaties.
Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties
U.S. trade agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), World Trade Organization agreements, and bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) have been approved by majority vote of each house rather than by two-thirds vote of the Senate - that is, they have been treated as congressional-executive agreements rather than as treaties. The congressional-executive agreement has been the vehicle for implementing Congress's long-standing policy of seeking trade benefits for the United States through reciprocal trade negotiations. This report discusses this topic in brief.
Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties
U.S. trade agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), World Trade Organization agreements, and bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) have been approved by majority vote of each house rather than by two-thirds vote of the Senate - that is, they have been treated as congressional-executive agreements rather than as treaties. The congressional-executive agreement has been the vehicle for implementing Congress's long-standing policy of seeking trade benefits for the United States through reciprocal trade negotiations. This report discusses this topic in brief.
Cross-Border Energy Trade in North America: Present and Potential
This report provides an overview of the United States' energy trade with Canada and Mexico. For the principal energy commodities, it summarizes estimates of the resource potential for the three countries, recent energy production, and expectations for future production.
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
This report provides an overview of North American trade liberalization before NAFTA, an overview of NAFTA provisions, the economic effects of NAFTA, and policy considerations.
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
This report provides an overview of North American trade liberalization before NAFTA, an overview of NAFTA provisions, the economic effects of NAFTA, and policy considerations.
North American Free Trade Agreement: Notification for Renegotiation
This report discusses the fate of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) after the Trump Administration sent a 90-day notification to Congress of its intent to begin talks with Canada and Mexico to renegotiate NAFTA.
NAFTA and Motor Vehicle Trade
This report discusses the development of U.S. motor vehicle production under the North American Free Trade Act (NAFTA) and analyzes the North American motor vehicle market, including production, plant locations, and continental trade patterns. It summarizes the motor vehicle rules of origin in NAFTA and compares them with similar requirements in other trade agreements, and examines how the potential changes in NAFTA might affect the motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts industries in the United States.
Trade Negotiations During the 109th Congress
This report discusses trade issues in the 109th Congress. For over 50 years, U.S. trade officials have negotiated multilateral trade agreements to achieve lower trade barriers and rules to cover international trade. During the 108th Congress, U.S. officials negotiated and Congress approved four bilateral free-trade agreements with Australia, Chile, Morocco, and Singapore.
Generalized System of Preferences: Background and Renewal Debate
The U.S. Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) program provides non-reciprocal, duty-free tariff treatment to certain products imported from designated beneficiary developing countries (BDCs). This report presents, first, recent developments and a brief history, economic rationale, and legal background leading to the establishment of the GSP. Second, the report presents a discussion of U.S. implementation of the GSP. Third, the report presents an analysis of the U.S. program's effectiveness and the positions of various stakeholders. Fourth, implications of the expiration of the U.S. program and possible options for Congress are discussed.
Proposed U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Background and Issues
This report discusses the proposed U.S.-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement, also called the U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement (CFTA),which is a bilateral free trade agreement between the United States and Colombia which, if ratified, would eliminate tariffs and other barriers in goods and services between the two countries.
Trade Negotiations During the 109th Congress
This report discusses trade issues in the 109th Congress. For over 50 years, U.S. trade officials have negotiated multilateral trade agreements to achieve lower trade barriers and rules to cover international trade. During the 108th Congress, U.S. officials negotiated and Congress approved four bilateral free-trade agreements with Australia, Chile, Morocco, and Singapore.
Generalized System of Preferences: Background and Renewal Debate
This report presents recent developments and a brief history of the U.S. Generalized System of Preferences (GSP), which provides non-reciprocal, duty-free tariff treatment to certain products imported from designated beneficiary developing countries (BDCs). It discusses the economic rationale and legal background leading to the establishment of the GSP and the U.S. implementation of the GSP. The report also presents an analysis of the U.S. program's effectiveness and the positions of various stakeholders, as well as the implications of the expiration of the U.S. program and possible options for Congress.
U.S.-Vietnam Economic and Trade Relations: Issues for the 112th Congress
This report discusses the economic relationship between Vietnam and the U.S. that resumed in the 1990s. Of particular interest to Congress is that both nations may soon be members of the Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement (TTP).
U.S.-Vietnam Economic and Trade Relations: Issues for the 112th Congress
This report discusses the economic relationship between Vietnam and the U.S. that resumed in the 1990s. Of particular interest to Congress is that both nations may soon be members of the Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement (TTP).
Trade Negotiations During the 109th Congress
No Description Available.
Trade Negotiations During the 109th Congress
No Description Available.
The U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Background and Issues
This report discusses the proposed U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement (CFTA) signed November 22, 2006, which has not yet been approved by Congress. It includes an overview of the proposed CFTA and U.S.-Colombia trade, background on Colombia, issues for Congress to consider, Colombia's plan to improve labor rights, and the actions that Colombia has already taken to improve violence, labor, and human rights within the country.
Generalized System of Preferences: Background and Renewal Debate
This report presents, first, a brief history, economic rationale, and legal background leading to the establishment of the U.S. Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) program, which provides non-reciprocal, duty-free tariff treatment to certain products imported from designated beneficiary developing countries (BDC's). A brief comparison of GSP programs worldwide, especially as they compare to the U.S. system, is also presented. Second, the report presents a discussion of U.S. implementation of the GSP, along with the present debate surrounding its renewal and legislative developments to date. Third, an analysis of the U.S. program's effectiveness and the positions of various stakeholders is presented. Fourth, implications of the expiration of the U.S. program and possible options for Congress are discussed.