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Increased U.S. Military Sales to China: Arguments and Alternatives

Description: The report examines the current debate in the United States over proposals for increased U.S. military sales to China. The study first examines the background of U.S.-China security ties since the Nixon Administration, and then sets forth the parameters of the current debate by noting a number of issues concerning U.S. military transfers to China on which all sides generally agree. It shows that Americans familiar with the issue tend to identify with different groups of opinion or "schools of thought" on the question of U.S. military transfers to China, and provides a detailed pro-con analysis of the issue. It concludes by noting cross pressures that are likely to greet U.S. policy makers as they grapple with this issue in the months ahead and offers an assessment of four policy options of possible use by U.S. policymakers.
Date: May 20, 1981
Creator: Sutter, Robert G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Imported Automobiles in the United States: Their Rising Market Share and the Macroeconomic Impact of a Proposed Import Restriction

Description: After two generations of almost unchallenged supremacy, the U.S. auto industry has recently faced plummeting sales, rising competition from imports, and mounting requirements for capital investment and structural change. This has resulted in massive spilling of red ink in the industry's profit and loss columns, further financial pressures on the ailing Chrysler Corporation, layoffs of nearly 250,000 workers (as of August 4, 1980 in the automotive industry alone according to the United Auto Workers Union) and soaring claims for unemployment compensation and trade adjustment assistance. This study focuses on import competition in the auto industry and the economic impact of proposals to limit such competition through either import quotas or agreements with foreign governments (Japan) to restrict automotive exports to the United States.
Date: September 15, 1980
Creator: Nanto, Dick K. & Elwell, Craig
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Iran-Libya Sanctions Act (ILSA)

Description: In August 2001, the Iran-Libya Sanctions Act (ILSA, P.L. 104-172) was renewed for another five years (P.L. 107-24). No firms have been sanctioned under ILSA, and ILSA has terminated with respect to Libya. In the 109th Congress, H.R. 282 and S. 333 contain provisions that would modify ILSA. This report discusses various issues including the background and passages of the ILSA and its effectiveness.
Date: April 19, 2005
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Central America and the Dominican Republic in the Context of the Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA) with the United States

Description: This report explains the conditions in five countries in Central America (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua) and one country in the Caribbean (Dominican Republic) that will be partners with the United States in the U.S.-Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA) signed in August 2004. In U.S. approval action, the House and Senate passed the required implementing legislation (H.R. 3045) on July 27 and 28, 2005, and the President signed it into law (P.L. 109-53) on August 2, 2005. The agreement will enter into force for the other countries when their legislatures have approved it. The legislatures of El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala have approved the pact so far.
Date: August 4, 2005
Creator: Storrs, K. Larry; Ribando, Clare; Sek, Lenore; Sullivan, Mark P.; Taft-Morales, Maureen & Veillette, Connie
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Central America and the Dominican Republic in the Context of the Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA) with the United States

Description: This report explains the conditions in five countries in Central America (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua) and one country in the Caribbean (Dominican Republic) that will be partners with the United States in the U.S.-Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA) signed in August 2004. All of the signatory countries except Costa Rica have approved the pact. The agreement will enter into force for the approving countries on an agreed date, tentatively January 1, 2006. In U.S. approval action, the House and Senate passed the required implementing legislation (H.R. 3045) on July 27 and 28, 2005, and the President signed it into law (P.L. 109-53) on August 2, 2005.
Date: October 24, 2005
Creator: Storrs, K. Larry; Ribando, Clare; Sek, Lenore; Sullivan, Mark P.; Taft-Morales, Maureen & Veillette, Connie
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

WTO Decisions and Their Effect on U.S. Law

Description: Congress has comprehensively dealt with the legal effect of World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements and dispute settlement results in the United States in the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (URAA), P.L. 103-465, which provides that domestic law prevails over conflicting provisions of WTO agreements and prohibits private remedies based on alleged violations of these agreements. As a result, WTO agreements and adopted WTO rulings in conflict with federal law do not have domestic legal effect unless and until Congress or the Executive Branch, as the case may be, takes action to modify or remove the statute, regulation, or regulatory practice at issue. Violative state laws may be withdrawn by the state or, in rare circumstances, invalidated through legal action by the federal government. In addition, the URAA places requirements on federal regulatory action taken to implement WTO decisions and contains provisions specific to the implementation of dispute settlement panel and appellate reports that fault U.S. actions in trade remedy proceedings.
Date: May 24, 2005
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

China's Currency: Brief Overview of U.S. Opinions

Description: Many are concerned that China’s currency is undervalued and that this injures the U.S. economy. The Chinese authorities say they are not manipulating their currency and they want to move as soon as possible to a market-based yuan. A new exchange rate procedure was announced in July 2005 but has not resulted in meaningful changes in the yuan’s international value. This report reviews the issues and discusses alternative approaches the United States might take to encourage more rapid reform.
Date: November 29, 2005
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

WTO Doha Round: Agricultural Negotiating Proposals

Description: The pace of negotiations in the Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations has quickened as the mid-December Hong Kong Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization (WTO) approaches. At Hong Kong, WTO member countries are expected to reach agreements on specific measures (known as modalities) to expand global trade in agricultural and industrial products and services and set the stage for intensive negotiations that would take place during 2006. Despite intense negotiations, agreements on modalities, especially for agriculture, have eluded negotiators. This report provides background information on the WTO, the Doha Round, the key negotiating groups, and a schedule of historical and upcoming events relevant to the agricultural negotiations; reviews the agreements reached in the July 2004 framework and identifies issues that remain to be resolved by the Hong Kong Ministerial in December; discusses and compares the major agricultural negotiating proposals; and discusses the potential effects of an agricultural agreement on U.S. farm policy.
Date: November 9, 2005
Creator: Hanrahan, Charles E. & Schnepf, Randy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

China-U.S. Trade Issues

Description: U.S.-China economic ties have expanded substantially over the past several years. China is now the third largest U.S. trading partner, its second largest source of imports, and its fourth largest export market. However, U.S.-China commercial ties have been strained by a number of issues, including a surging U.S. trade deficit with China, China's refusal to float its currency, and failure to fully comply with its World Trade Organization (WTO) commitments, especially its failure to provide protection for U.S. intellectual property rights (IPR). This report explores these issues in detail, especially concerning the lack of protection for U.S. IPR.
Date: December 14, 2004
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Exon-Florio National Security Test for Foreign Investment

Description: The proposed acquisition of major operations in six major U.S. ports by Dubai Ports World and of Unocal by the China National Offshore Oil Corporation sparked intense concerns among some Members of Congress and the public and has reignited the debate over what role foreign acquisitions play in U.S. national security. The United States actively promotes internationally the national treatment of foreign firms. Several Members of Congress have introduced various measures during the 2nd Session of the 109th Congress that can be grouped into four major areas: those that deal specifically with the proposed Dubai Ports World acquisition; those that focus more generally on foreign ownership of U.S. ports; those that would amend the CFIUS process; and those that would amend the Exon-Florio process.
Date: July 15, 2005
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DR-CAFTA: Regional Issues

Description: On August 5, 2004, the United States signed the U.S- Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA) with five Central American countries (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua) and the Dominican Republic. DR-CAFTA could have a significant effect on U.S. relations with the region, primarily by establishing a permanent and reciprocal trade preference arrangement among the signatory countries. DR-CAFTA must now be ratified by each country’s legislature and approved by the U.S. Congress before taking effect.
Date: June 10, 2005
Creator: Ribando, Clare
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DR-CAFTA Labor Rights Issues

Description: The U.S.-Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement (DRCAFTA) is the eighth free trade agreement to include labor protections.1 Labor concerns tend to focus on three main questions: (1) How strong are labor laws in DRCAFTA countries?2 (2) Are those labor laws being adequately enforced? and (3) Does DR- CAFTA comply with the principal negotiating objectives for trade agreements outlined in the Trade Act of 2002?
Date: June 2, 2005
Creator: Bolle, Mary Jane
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department