Congressional Research Service Reports - 660 Matching Results

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Trade Primer: Qs and As on Trade Concepts, Performance, and Policy

Description: The 112th Congress has a full legislative and oversight agenda on international trade. The agenda may include considering legislation to implement pending free trade agreements with Panama, South Korea, and Colombia, enhanced enforcement of U.S. trade agreements, as well as oversight of the World Trade Organization's Doha Round and trade relations with China. This report provides information and context for many of these topics. The report is divided into four sections in a question-and-answer format: trade concepts, U.S. trade performance, formulation of U.S. trade policy, and trade and investment issues.
Date: January 5, 2011
Creator: Ahearn, Raymond J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trade Primer: Qs and As on Trade Concepts, Performance, and Policy

Description: This report is divided into four sections in a question-and-answer format: trade concepts, U.S. trade performance, formulation of U.S. trade policy, and trade and investment issues. The first section on "Trade Concepts" deals with why countries trade, the consequences of trade expansion, and the relationship between globalization and trade. The second section, on trade performance, focuses on the U.S. trade deficit and its impact on industries. The third section deals with the roles played by the Executive Branch, Congress, the private sector, and the Judiciary in the formulation of U.S. trade policy. The fourth section, on U.S. trade and investment policy, asks questions related to trade negotiations and agreements and to imports, exports, and investments.
Date: December 8, 2010
Creator: Ahearn, Raymond J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement: Effects After Five Years

Description: This report provides an overview of the major trade and economic effects of the U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement (FTA) (P.L. 108-78), from the time that it went into effect (January 1, 2004) over the three years ending in 2006. It also includes detailed information on key provisions of the agreement and legislative action.
Date: March 26, 2010
Creator: Nanto, Dick K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

What's the Difference?--Comparing U.S. and Chinese Trade Data

Description: This report provides a comparison of U.S. and Chinese trade data. The U.S. trade deficit with the People's Republic of China (China) remains a major source of bilateral tension. Members of Congress and other U.S. government officials often point to the bilateral trade imbalance as evidence that China is not competing fairly in the global market.
Date: April 21, 2010
Creator: Martin, Michael F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stealing Trade Secrets and Economic Espionage: An Abridged Overview of 18 U.S.C. 1831 and 1832

Description: This report discuses the stealing a trade secret, which is a federal crime when the information relates to a product in interstate or foreign commerce, 18 U.S.C. 1832 (theft of trade secrets), or when the intended beneficiary is a foreign power, 18 U.S.C. 1831 (economic espionage).
Date: January 28, 2013
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Trade with Free Trade Agreement (FTA) Partners

Description: This report presents data on U.S. merchandise (goods) trade with its Free Trade Agreement (FTA) partner countries. The data are presented to show bilateral trade balances for individual FTA partners and groups of countries representing such major agreements as the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the Central American Free Trade Agreement and Dominican Republic (CAFTA-DR) relative to total U.S. trade balances.
Date: August 18, 2016
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The United States Withdraws from the TPP

Description: This report discusses discusses the withdrawal of the United States as a signatory from the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) agreement as directed by President Trump.
Date: February 13, 2017
Creator: Williams, Brock R. & Fergusson, Ian F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement

Description: This report provides an overview of the Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA), its provisions, and the United States' implementation and role in capacity building. It also provides options for Congress to consider in relation to the TFA.
Date: March 3, 2017
Creator: Fefer, Rachel F. & Jones, Vivian C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

International Trade: Rules of Origin

Description: This report deals with Rules of origin (ROO) in three parts. First, we describe in more detail the reasons that country of origin rules are important and briefly describe U.S. laws and methods that provide direction in making these determinations. Second, we discuss briefly some of the more controversial issues involving rules of origin, including the apparently subjective nature of some CBP origin determinations, and the effects of the global manufacturing process on ROO. Third, we conclude with some alternatives and options that Congress could consider that might assist in simplifying the process.
Date: January 5, 2012
Creator: Jones, Vivian C. & Martin, Michael F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Trade with Free Trade Agreement (FTA) Partners

Description: This report presents data on U.S. merchandise (goods) trade with its Free Trade Agreement (FTA) partner countries. The data are presented to show bilateral trade balances for individual FTA partners and groups of countries representing such major agreements as the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the Central American Free Trade Agreement and Dominican Republic (CAFTA-DR) relative to total U.S. trade balances.
Date: May 21, 2015
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trade Primer: Qs and As on Trade Concepts, Performance, and Policy

Description: The 112th Congress has a full legislative and oversight agenda on international trade. The agenda so far has included approval of legislation to implement free trade agreements with Colombia, Panama, and South Korea, and may take up enhanced enforcement of U.S. trade agreements, as well as Russia's accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) and Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) status, oversight of the World Trade Organization's Doha Round, and trade relations with China. This report provides information and context for many of these topics. It is divided into four sections in a question-and-answer format: trade concepts; U.S. trade performance; formulation of U.S. trade policy; and trade and investment issues. Additional suggested readings are provided in an appendix.
Date: April 16, 2012
Creator: Hornbeck, J. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of Buy America on Transportation Infrastructure and U.S. Manufacturing: Policy Options

Description: This report begins by explaining Buy America restrictions in more detail. It describes how Buy America comports with international trade agreements that generally forbid procurement restrictions favoring domestic products; and how a relatively new provision enacted by Congress may require imports of materials on federally-funded transportation projects to be carried on U.S.-flag ships. The report identifies policy options Congress might consider in light of recent legislative proposals.
Date: June 14, 2017
Creator: Platzer, Michaela D. & Mallett, William J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High Frequency Trading: Overview of Recent Developments

Description: This report provides background on various High-frequency trading (HFT) strategies and some associated policy issues, recent regulatory developments and selected enforcement actions by the SEC and Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC), on HFT, and congressional action such as proposed legislation and hearings related to HFT.
Date: April 4, 2016
Creator: Miller, Rena S. & Shorter, Gary
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High Frequency Trading: Overview of Recent Developments

Description: This report provides background on various High-frequency trading (HFT) strategies and some associated policy issues, recent regulatory developments and selected enforcement actions by the SEC and Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC), on HFT, and congressional action such as proposed legislation and hearings related to HFT.
Date: April 1, 2016
Creator: Miller, Rena S. & Shorter, Gary
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-Frequency Trading: Background, Concerns, and Regulatory Developments

Description: This report provides an overview of high-frequency trading (HFT) in the equities and derivatives markets regulated by the SEC and the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC). It also examines the Flash Crash of 2010 and the role that HFT may have played, as well as recent regulatory developments.
Date: June 19, 2014
Creator: Shorter, Gary & Miller, Rena S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview of Labor Enforcement Issues in Free Trade Agreements

Description: This report identifies two types of labor enforcement issues: those that relate to the free trade agreements (FTA) provisions themselves, including their definitions and their enforceability, and those that relate to executive branch responsibilities, such as resource availability and determining dispute settlement case priorities.
Date: January 31, 2013
Creator: Bolle, Mary Jane
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Customs and Border Protection: Trade Facilitation, Enforcement, and Security

Description: This report describes and analyzes U.S. Customs and Border Protection's (CBP) role in the U.S. import process. The first section of the report describes the three overarching goals of U.S. import policy and the tension among them. Second, the report summarizes recent legislative developments and provides a legislative history of customs laws, followed by an overview of the U.S. import process as it operates today. Third, the import process and CBP's role in it are discussed.
Date: May 18, 2015
Creator: Seghetti, Lisa
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trade Reorganization: Overview and Issues for Congress

Description: On January 13, 2012, President Obama asked Congress for authority to reorganize and consolidate into one department the business- and trade-related functions of six federal entities. U.S. policymakers' interest in the organizational structure of U.S. government trade functions has grown in recent years, stimulated by congressional and federal efforts to promote U.S. exports and employment, including through the National Export Initiative (NEI). Interest also has been stimulated by national debates on reducing federal spending and the size of the U.S. government. This report looks at the policy debate and role of Congress in such a move.
Date: May 31, 2012
Creator: Ilias, Shayerah
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trade Law: An Introduction to Selected International Agreements and U.S. Laws

Description: This report is an introductory overview of the legal framework governing trade-related measures. The agreements and laws selected for discussion are those most commonly implicated by U.S. trade interests, but there are U.S. trade laws and obligations beyond those reviewed in this report.
Date: April 3, 2012
Creator: Barbour, Emily C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trade Law: An Introduction to Selected International Agreements and U.S. Laws

Description: This report is an introductory overview of the legal framework governing trade-related measures. The agreements and laws selected for discussion are those most-commonly implicated by U.S. trade interests, but there are U.S. trade laws and obligations beyond those reviewed in this report.
Date: January 14, 2011
Creator: Barbour, Emily C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

International Trade and Finance: Key Policy Issues for the 113th Congress

Description: This report discusses a variety of issues faced by the 113th Congress. Topics include trade negotiations with China, export controls and sanctions, import policies, intellectual property rights, international investments and international financial institutions.
Date: April 15, 2013
Creator: Hornbeck, J. F. & Irace, Mary A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Jackson-Vanik Amendment and Candidate Countries for WTO Accession: Issues for Congress

Description: Report that gives an analysis of the unconditional most-favored-nation (MFN) status, or in U.S. statutory parlance, normal trade relations (NTR) status, which is a fundamental principle of the World Trade Organization (WTO). The report includes information about MFN status and the WTO, the Jackson-Vanik Amendment restricting trade, the case of China, and prospective WTO accessions.
Date: January 4, 2013
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

International Trade: Rules of Origin

Description: This report deals with rules of origin (ROO) in three parts. First, we describe in more detail the reasons that country of origin rules are important and briefly describe U.S. laws and methods that provide direction in making these determinations. Second, we discuss briefly some of the more controversial issues involving rules of origin, including the apparently subjective nature of some CBP origin determinations, and the effects of the global manufacturing process on ROO. Third, we conclude with some alternatives and options that Congress could consider that might assist in simplifying the process.
Date: May 14, 2010
Creator: Jones, Vivian C. & Martin, Michael F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department