Congressional Research Service Reports - 123 Matching Results

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Trade Primer: Qs and As on Trade Concepts, Performance, and Policy

Description: This report is divided into four sections in a question-and-answer format: trade concepts, U.S. trade performance, formulation of U.S. trade policy, and trade and investment issues. The first section on "Trade Concepts" deals with why countries trade, the consequences of trade expansion, and the relationship between globalization and trade. The second section, on trade performance, focuses on the U.S. trade deficit and its impact on industries. The third section deals with the roles played by the Executive Branch, Congress, the private sector, and the Judiciary in the formulation of U.S. trade policy. The fourth section, on U.S. trade and investment policy, asks questions related to trade negotiations and agreements and to imports, exports, and investments.
Date: December 8, 2010
Creator: Ahearn, Raymond J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement: Effects After Five Years

Description: This report provides an overview of the major trade and economic effects of the U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement (FTA) (P.L. 108-78), from the time that it went into effect (January 1, 2004) over the three years ending in 2006. It also includes detailed information on key provisions of the agreement and legislative action.
Date: March 26, 2010
Creator: Nanto, Dick K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

What's the Difference?--Comparing U.S. and Chinese Trade Data

Description: This report provides a comparison of U.S. and Chinese trade data. The U.S. trade deficit with the People's Republic of China (China) remains a major source of bilateral tension. Members of Congress and other U.S. government officials often point to the bilateral trade imbalance as evidence that China is not competing fairly in the global market.
Date: April 21, 2010
Creator: Martin, Michael F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

International Trade: Rules of Origin

Description: This report deals with rules of origin (ROO) in three parts. First, we describe in more detail the reasons that country of origin rules are important and briefly describe U.S. laws and methods that provide direction in making these determinations. Second, we discuss briefly some of the more controversial issues involving rules of origin, including the apparently subjective nature of some CBP origin determinations, and the effects of the global manufacturing process on ROO. Third, we conclude with some alternatives and options that Congress could consider that might assist in simplifying the process.
Date: May 14, 2010
Creator: Jones, Vivian C. & Martin, Michael F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement

Description: This report discusses the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP), a free trade agreement that includes nations on both sides of the Pacific. Original members of the TPP were Brunei, Chile, New Zealand, and Singapore. The United States, Australia, Peru, and Vietnam have committed themselves to joining and expanding this group. This report discusses similar trade partnerships, the importance of Asia to U.S. trade and security interests, and U.S. participation in the TPP.
Date: June 25, 2010
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F. & Vaughn, Bruce
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trade Law: An Introduction to Selected International Agreements and U.S. Laws

Description: This report is an introductory overview of the legal framework governing trade-related measures. The agreements and laws selected for discussion are those most commonly implicated by U.S. trade interests, but there are U.S. trade obligations beyond those reviewed in this report.
Date: June 29, 2010
Creator: Barbour, Emily C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement

Description: This report discusses the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP), a free trade agreement that includes nations on both sides of the Pacific. Original members of the TPP were Brunei, Chile, New Zealand, and Singapore. The United States, Australia, Peru, and Vietnam have committed themselves to joining and expanding this group. This report discusses similar trade partnerships, the importance of Asia to U.S. trade and security interests, and U.S. participation in the TPP.
Date: April 14, 2010
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F. & Vaughn, Bruce
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free Trade Agreements: Impact on U.S. Trade and Implications for U.S. Trade Policy

Description: This report provides background on free trade areas (FTAs) -- arrangements among two or more countries under which they agree to eliminate tariffs and nontariff barriers on trade in goods among themselves -- why countries form them, and how they relate to U.S. trade policy. It also discusses recent developments, the economic impact of FTAs, the relation of FTAs to the World Trade Organization (WTO) and debate points, as well as general conclusions and implications for Congress.
Date: February 23, 2010
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement

Description: This report discusses the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP), a free trade agreement that includes nations on both sides of the Pacific. Original members of the TPP were Brunei, Chile, New Zealand, and Singapore. The United States, Australia, Peru, and Vietnam have committed themselves to joining and expanding this group. This report discusses similar trade partnerships, the importance of Asia to U.S. trade and security interests, and U.S. participation in the TPP.
Date: November 1, 2010
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F. & Vaughn, Bruce
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The U.S.-EU Beef Hormone Dispute

Description: This report discusses the long-standing and acrimonious trade dispute between the United States and the European Union (EU) over the EU's decision to ban hormone-treated meat.
Date: December 6, 2010
Creator: Johnson, Renée & Hanrahan, Charles E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Country-of-Origin Labeling for Foods

Description: This report covers the country-of-origin labeling (COOL) system implemented by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Canada and Mexico say that the (COOL) system is unfair and does not meet its original objectives, while Congress is considering legislation that would further expand labeling requirements.
Date: July 15, 2010
Creator: Jurenas, Remy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pending U.S. and EU Free Trade Agreements with South Korea: Possible Implications for Automobile and Other Manufacturing Industries

Description: This report provides U.S. lawmakers with a comparison of the manufacturing components in the South Korea free trade agreement (KORUS) and the European Union and South Korea free trade agreement (KOREU FTA). Also included is a brief overview of the possible implications of the two pending FTAs on other selected industrial sectors affected by the FTAs: home appliances, consumer electronics, textiles and apparel, and pharmaceuticals and medical devices.
Date: September 1, 2010
Creator: Platzer, Michaela D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Future of U.S. Trade Policy: An Analysis of Issues and Options for the 111th Congress

Description: This report provides analysis of U.S. trade policy including factors that make up the current economic and political climate, grade issues, the depate over U.S. trade policy. It concludes with an examination of some of the options available to Congress and the pros and cons of each.
Date: March 24, 2010
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Europe's Preferential Trade Agreements: Status, Content, and Implications

Description: The first section of this report describes the status and primary motivations of the EU's preferential trade agreements (PTAs) currently in place or under negotiation. The second compares the content and trade coverage of Europe's PTAs to U.S. PTAs. A third section assesses the implications of the EU's PTA program for the multilateral trading system and U.S. trade policy. A concluding section evaluates future directions for Europe's PTA policy.
Date: March 22, 2010
Creator: Ahearn, Raymond J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties

Description: U.S. trade agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), World Trade Organization agreements, and bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) have been approved by majority vote of each house rather than by two-thirds vote of the Senate - that is, they have been treated as congressional-executive agreements rather than as treaties. The congressional-executive agreement has been the vehicle for implementing Congress's long-standing policy of seeking trade benefits for the United States through reciprocal trade negotiations. This report discusses this topic in brief.
Date: September 8, 2010
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trade Remedies and the WTO Rules Negotiations

Description: At the November 2001 Ministerial meeting of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Doha, Qatar, member countries launched a new round of trade talks known as the Doha Development Agenda (DDA). This report examines trade remedy issues in DDA in three parts. The first part provides background information and contextual analysis. The second section focuses on how these issues fit into the DDA. A third section provides a more specific overview of major reform proposals that are being considered.
Date: June 7, 2010
Creator: Jones, Vivian C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties

Description: This report discusses the issues surrounding whether or not the U.S. should grant Russia permanent normal trade relations (PNTR) following its accession into the World Trade Organization (WTO). The change in Russia's trade status will require legislation to lift the restrictions of Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974 as they apply to Russia, which includes the "freedom-of-emigration" requirements of the Jackson-Vanik amendment.
Date: December 2, 2010
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties

Description: This report discusses the issues surrounding whether or not the U.S. should grant Russia permanent normal trade relations (PNTR) following its accession into the World Trade Organization (WTO). The change in Russia's trade status will require legislation to lift the restrictions of Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974 as they apply to Russia, which includes the "freedom-of-emigration" requirements of the Jackson-Vanik amendment.
Date: December 22, 2010
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. International Trade: Trends and Forecasts

Description: The U.S. trade deficit was shrinking through June 2009 because of the global financial crisis but has begun to increase again. The crisis caused U.S. imports to drop faster than U.S. exports. The global simultaneous recession, however, implies that exporting countries cannot rely on increased foreign demand to make up for slack demand at home. Even though U.S. imports are down considerably from 2008, companies competing with imports still face diminishing demand as the domestic economy has been hit by recession. This report provides an overview of the international trade climate and U.S. trade policy. The report also discusses common perceptions about the deficit and trade balances.
Date: May 26, 2010
Creator: Nanto, Dick K. & Donnelly, J. Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Agriculture in Pending U.S. Free Trade Agreements with Colombia, Panama, and South Korea

Description: This report discusses pending U.S. free trade agreements (FTAs) with South Korea, Colombia, and Panama. The bills to implement these agreements will now be debated under trade promotion authority, or fast-track rules, designed to expedite congressional consideration. The report includes an overview of agricultural issues regarding FTAs and pending FTA partners, as well as a closer breakdown of the specific issues for each of the countries.
Date: February 4, 2010
Creator: Jurenas, Remy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Foreign-Trade Zones: Trade Agreement Parity (TAP) Proposal

Description: This report provides an introduction to U.S. Foreign Trade Zones (FTZ). The report discusses the details of the Trade Agreement Parity (TAP) proposal, the potential winners and losers under the TAP proposal, economic studies on the TAP proposal, and policy analysis on the TAP proposal.
Date: January 20, 2010
Creator: Bolle, Mary Jane
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The U.S. Trade Deficit: Causes, Consequences, and Policy Options

Description: The first part of this report explains the fundamental macroeconomic forces that cause a trade imbalance (deficit or surplus). In light of those fundamental forces, the report then evaluates the most common economic concerns about trade deficits. Finally, the report examines the efficacy of alternative policy responses to trade imbalances and the economic forces that generate them.
Date: July 12, 2010
Creator: Elwell, Craig K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department