Congressional Research Service Reports - 61 Matching Results

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Animal Identification and Meat Traceability

Description: This report focuses on animal ID and meat traceability. However, traceability, and the somewhat different but related concepts of “identity preservation” and “product segregation,” also pertain to other agricultural products (e.g., grains) and issues (e.g., genetically modified, or GM, crops; the labeling of GM foods; and the production and labeling of organic foods)
Date: June 28, 2005
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

China’s Currency: Economic Issues and Options for U.S. Trade Policy

Description: The continued rise in China’s trade surplus with the United States and the world, and complaints from U.S. manufacturing firms and workers over the competitive challenges posed by Chinese imports have led several Members to call for a more aggressive U.S. stance against certain Chinese trade policies they deem to be unfair. This report examines China's currency policy its implications.
Date: June 28, 2007
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M. & Labonte, Marc
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS)

Description: The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS) is an interagency committee that serves the President in overseeing the national security implications of foreign investment in the economy. Since it was established by an Executive Order of President Ford in 1975, the committee has operated in relative obscurity.1 According to a Treasury Department memorandum, the Committee originally was established in order to placate Congress, which had grown concerned over the rapid increase in Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) investments in American portfolio assets (Treasury securities, corporate stocks and bonds), and to respond to concerns of some that much of the OPEC investments were being driven by political, rather than by economic, motives.
Date: July 28, 2006
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Country-of-Origin Labeling for Foods and the WTO Trade Dispute on Meat Labeling

Description: This report covers the dispute between the U.S with its neighbors, Canada and Mexico, who say that the recent country-of-origin labeling (COOL) system implemented by the U.S. Department of Agriculture is unfair and does not meet its original objectives. This dispute was brought before the WTO dispute panel and found to be valid. The report ends with a discussion of options for the U.S. in regards to modifying COOL to follow WTO rulings.
Date: January 28, 2014
Creator: Jurenas, Remy & Greene, Joel L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Country-of-Origin Labeling for Foods and the WTO Trade Dispute on Meat Labeling

Description: This report covers the dispute between the U.S with its neighbors, Canada and Mexico, who say that the recent country-of-origin labeling (COOL) system implemented by the U.S. Department of Agriculture is unfair and does not meet its original objectives. This dispute was brought before the WTO dispute panel and found to be valid. The report ends with a discussion of options for the U.S. in regards to modifying COOL to follow WTO rulings.
Date: January 28, 2014
Creator: Jurenas, Remy & Greene, Joel L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dispute Settlement in the World Trade Organization (WTO): An Overview

Description: This report describes the Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes (DSU), which is the World Trade Organization's (WTO) means of resolving disputes arising under WTO agreements. The report includes criticisms of certain flaws in the DSU, as well as WTO Members' suggestions for improvement. The report also describes the Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR), which represents the United States in WTO disputes, and discusses pieces of legislation that dictate procedures for specifically the United States in instances of WTO disputes.
Date: August 28, 2012
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dispute Settlement Under the U.S.-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement: An Overview

Description: This report discusses the U.S.-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement (PTPA) and the two types of formal dispute settlement it contains: 1) State-State and 2) investor-State. The report also discusses how the PTPA differs from earlier U.S. Free Trade Agreements (FTAs).
Date: January 28, 2011
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Exempting Food and Agriculture Products from U.S. Economic Sanctions: Status and Implementation

Description: Falling agricultural exports and declining commodity prices led farm groups and agribusiness firms to urge the 106th Congress to pass legislation exempting foods and agricultural commodities from U.S. economic sanctions against certain countries. In completing action on the FY2001 agriculture appropriations bill, Congress codified the lifting of unilateral sanctions on commercial sales of food, agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical products to Iran, Libya, North Korea, and Sudan, and extended this policy to apply to Cuba (Title IX of H.R. 5426, as enacted by P.L. 106-387; Trade Sanctions Reform and Export Enhancement Act of 2000). Related provisions place financing and licensing conditions on sales to these countries. Those that apply to Cuba, though, are permanent and more restrictive than for the other countries. Other provisions give Congress the authority in the future to veto a President's proposal to impose a sanction on the sale of agricultural or medical products.
Date: February 28, 2002
Creator: Jurenas, Remy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Exon-Florio National Security Test for Foreign Investment

Description: The United States actively promotes internationally the national treatment of foreign firms. Some Members of Congress and others are concerned with this policy, however, particularly with how it applies to allowing government-owned companies unlimited access to the Nation's industrial base. Much of this debate focuses on the activities of a relatively obscure committee, the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS) and the Exon-Florio provision, which gives the President broad powers to block certain types of foreign investment. Several Members of Congress have introduced various measures during the 2nd Session of the 109th Congress regarding this ongoing policy debate.
Date: July 28, 2006
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Exon-Florio National Security Test for Foreign Investment

Description: The proposed acquisition of major operations in six major U.S. ports by Dubai Ports World and of Unocal by the China National Offshore Oil Corporation sparked intense concerns among some Members of Congress and the public and has reignited the debate over what role foreign acquisitions play in U.S. national security. The United States actively promotes internationally the national treatment of foreign firms. Several Members of Congress have introduced various measures during the 2nd Session of the 109th Congress that can be grouped into four major areas: those that deal specifically with the proposed Dubai Ports World acquisition; those that focus more generally on foreign ownership of U.S. ports; those that would amend the CFIUS process; and those that would amend the Exon-Florio process.
Date: July 28, 2006
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Exon-Florio National Security Test for Foreign Investment

Description: The proposed acquisition of major operations in six major U.S. ports by Dubai Ports World and of Unocal by the China National Offshore Oil Corporation sparked intense concerns among some Members of Congress and the public and has reignited the debate over what role foreign acquisitions play in U.S. national security. The United States actively promotes internationally the national treatment of foreign firms. Several Members of Congress have introduced various measures during the 2nd Session of the 109th Congress that can be grouped into four major areas: those that deal specifically with the proposed Dubai Ports World acquisition; those that focus more generally on foreign ownership of U.S. ports; those that would amend the CFIUS process; and those that would amend the Exon-Florio process.
Date: July 28, 2006
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Export-Import Bank: Reauthorization

Description: This report discusses the ongoing debate regarding the Export-Import Bank of the United States, a federal government corporation which is the the official export credit agency (ECA) of the U.S. Government.
Date: July 28, 2006
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Farm Bill Trade and Food Aid Provisions

Description: This report discusses the trade provisions of omnibus farm legislation, passed and signed into law in May 2002. The measure includes a trade title reauthorizing, through 2007, the major foreign food aid and agricultural export programs. It also contains other provisions affecting agricultural trade, including new country-of-origin labeling requirements for meat, seafood, and produce; and increased domestic farm subsidies with possible implications for U.S. trade relations.
Date: January 28, 2003
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Growth of the Private Sector in China and Implications For China’s Accession to the World Trade Organization

Description: This report discusses the growth of the private sector in China, which has occurred to a large extent from the government’s efforts to reform China’s money-losing state-owned enterprises (SOEs). Workers who have been laid off from SOEs have been encouraged to find jobs in the private sector or to start their own businesses.
Date: March 28, 2001
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intellectual Property Rights and Access to Medicines: International Trade Issues

Description: This report focuses on the relationship between intellectual property right (IPR) provisions in international and U.S. trade policy and access to medicines. This issue represents one component of a broader debate about the relationship between trade policy and public health.
Date: May 28, 2009
Creator: Ilias, Shayerah
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Iran-Libya Sanctions Act (ILSA)

Description: The Iran-Libya Sanctions Act (ILSA) was introduced in response to Iran's stepped-up nuclear program and its support to terrorist organizations. No firms have been sanctioned under ILSA, and it has terminated with respect to Libya. Renewed in August 2001 for another five years, ILSA was scheduled to expire in August 2006. This report describes ILSA in detail, as well as related legislation.
Date: September 28, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Iran-Libya Sanctions Act (ILSA)

Description: No firms have been sanctioned under the Iran-Libya Sanctions Act (ILSA), and it has terminated with respect to Libya. In August 2001, the Iran-Libya Sanctions Act (ILSA, P.L. 104-172) was renewed for another five years (P.L. 107-24). No firms have been sanctioned under ILSA, and ILSA has terminated with respect to Libya. In the 109th Congress, H.R. 282 and S. 333 contain provisions that would modify ILSA. This report discusses various issues including the background and passages of the ILSA and its effectiveness.
Date: September 28, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran Sanctions

Description: The objective of sanctions-to compel Iran to verifiably demonstrate that its nuclear program is for purely peaceful uses-has not been achieved to date. The international coalition that is imposing progressively strict economic sanctions on Iran is broadening and deepening, with increasingly significant effect on Iran's economy. U.S. officials believe that these sanctions might yet cause Iran to return to the nuclear bargaining table with greater seriousness and intent toward peaceful resolution. The report discusses the effect of these sanctions as well as the pros and cons of increasing sanction.
Date: March 28, 2012
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Japan: Resale Price Maintenance

Description: Resale price maintenance occurs when manufacturers control the prices charged by wholesalers or retailers of their products. In Japan, such activities are prohibited, although certain exemptions are allowed. The U.S. concern over the practice is that it could allow Japanese firms to generate a secure profit base in their home market in order to finance aggressive price competition abroad.
Date: March 28, 1991
Creator: Nanto, Dick K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department