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High Frequency Trading: Overview of Recent Developments

Description: This report provides background on various High-frequency trading (HFT) strategies and some associated policy issues, recent regulatory developments and selected enforcement actions by the SEC and Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC), on HFT, and congressional action such as proposed legislation and hearings related to HFT.
Date: April 1, 2016
Creator: Miller, Rena S. & Shorter, Gary
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Sugar Program Fundamentals

Description: This report discusses the U.S. sugar program, which is singular among major agricultural commodity programs in that it combines a floor price guarantee with a supply management structure that encompasses both domestic production for human use and sugar imports.
Date: April 6, 2016
Creator: McMinimy, Mark A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Crude Oil Exports to International Destinations

Description: This report discusses the export of crude oil produced in the United States and policy considerations in the wake of a provision contained in P.L. 114-113 which repealed a 40-year prohibition on the export.
Date: April 6, 2016
Creator: Brown, Phillip
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS)

Description: This report discusses the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS) comprising nine members, two ex officio members, and other members as appointed by the President representing major departments and agencies within the federal executive branch. While the group generally has operated in relative obscurity, the proposed acquisition of commercial operations at six U.S. ports by Dubai Ports World in 2006 placed the group's operations under intense scrutiny by Members of Congress and the public.
Date: February 19, 2016
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trade Negotiations During the 109th Congress

Description: This report discusses trade issues in the 109th Congress. For over 50 years, U.S. trade officials have negotiated multilateral trade agreements to achieve lower trade barriers and rules to cover international trade. During the 108th Congress, U.S. officials negotiated and Congress approved four bilateral free-trade agreements with Australia, Chile, Morocco, and Singapore.
Date: August 3, 2005
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F. & Sek, Lenore M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP): In Brief

Description: This report briefly summarizes some of the key controversial issues of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), including select market access issues (such as on dairy and other agricultural products, autos, and textiles and apparel) as well as the level of intellectual property protection, the scope and enforcement of environment and worker rights provisions, investor-state dispute settlement, access to government procurement, and the potential inclusion of provisions on currency valuation and exchange rates. The TPP is a proposed free trade agreement (FTA) among 12 Asia-Pacific countries, which the Obama Administration casts as comprehensive, with economic and strategic significance for the United States.
Date: February 9, 2016
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F.; McMinimy, Mark A. & Williams, Brock R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs

Description: This report discusses projected agricultural imports and exports for FY2006, as well as legislation that deals with federal programs in support of agricultural exports and federal aid dedicated to farms and agricultural reform.
Date: January 23, 2006
Creator: Hanrahan, Charles E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview of Labor Enforcement Issues in Free Trade Agreements

Description: This report discusses free trade agreements (FTAs) that have enforceable labor provisions, grouped into four model types. It outlines the provisions for each and identifies two types of labor enforcement issues: (1) those that relate to the FTA provisions themselves, including their definitions and their enforceability, and (2) those that relate to executive branch responsibilities, such as resource availability and determining dispute settlement case priorities. This report does not address other labor issues in the various free trade agreements, including cooperative consultation and capacity-building provisions.
Date: February 22, 2016
Creator: Bolle, Mary Jane
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran, Gulf Security, and U.S. Policy

Description: This report discusses issues regarding Iran's political history and structure. It also takes a look at economic and defense policy responses for Congress, specifically focusing on Iran's nuclear capabilities.
Date: December 29, 2015
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Trans-Pacific Partnership: Strategic Implications

Description: This report discusses selected strategic arguments related to the proposed 12-nation Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) free trade agreement (FTA) negotiations. The potential impacts of the agreement may be an active area of debate during the second session of the 114th Congress.
Date: February 3, 2016
Creator: Williams, Brock R.; Dolven, Ben; Fergusson, Ian F.; Manyin, Mark E.; Martin, Michael F. & Morrison, Wayne M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Arms Sales: Congressional Review Process

Description: This report reviews the process and procedures that currently apply to congressional consideration of foreign arms sales proposed by the President. This includes consideration of proposals to sell major defense equipment, defense articles and services, or the re-transfer to third party nations of such military items.
Date: January 7, 2016
Creator: Kerr, Paul K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Space Launch Vehicles: Government Activities, Commercial Competition, and Satellite Exports

Description: This report various sides of the debate related to domestic launch services, such as satellite export issues, the development of new launch vehicles by the private sector, and whether tax incentives or loan guarantees should be created for companies attempting to develop lower-cost launch vehicles.
Date: March 20, 2006
Creator: Behrens, Carl E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Diamonds and Conflict: Background, Policy, and Legislation

Description: This report discusses issues surrounding "conflict diamonds" -- i.e., diamonds that have been mined and sold to support armed conflict -- as well as resulting U.S. policy responses. Policy makers' attention has also increasingly focused on the possible role that diamonds may play in the financing of terrorist operations.
Date: July 16, 2003
Creator: Cook, Nicolas
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP): In Brief

Description: This report briefly summarizes some of the key provisions listed in the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) that are seen as controversial. The TPP is a proposed free trade agreement (FTA) among 12 Asia-Pacific countries, which the Obama Administration casts as comprehensive, with economic and strategic significance for the United States. These controversial issues include select market access (such as on dairy and other agricultural products, autos, and textiles and apparel) as well as the level of intellectual property protection, the scope and enforcement of environment and worker rights provisions, the treatment of state-owned enterprises (SOEs), investor-state dispute settlement, access to government procurement, and the potential inclusion of provisions on currency valuation and exchange rates.
Date: January 8, 2016
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F.; McMinimy, Mark A. & Williams, Brock R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

Description: This report discusses the kingdom of Saudi Arabia's relations with the United States; its stability, and its future trajectory are subjects of continuing congressional interest.
Date: February 5, 2016
Creator: Blanchard, Christopher M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trade in Services Agreement (TiSA) Negotiations: Overview and Issues for Congress

Description: The purpose of the ongoing Trade in Services (TiSA) negotiations is to build on those rules by further increasing liberalization among the 23 negotiating parties, including the United States and European Union (EU), to open markets to foreign service providers and enhance rules governing services trade. This report provides a brief overview of U.S. trade in services, background on services in U.S. trade agreements, and an in-depth discussion of the ongoing TiSA negotiations.
Date: January 28, 2016
Creator: Fefer, Rachel F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Potential Challenges to U.S. Farm Subsidies in the WTO: A Brief Overview

Description: This report examines U.S. commodity subsidy programs, which have changing criteria due to the expiration of the World Trade Organization's (WTO's) so-called "Peace Clause." This change appears to have made U.S. export and domestic support programs more vulnerable to legal challenge under WTO rules.
Date: October 25, 2006
Creator: Schnepf, Randy & Womach, Jasper
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran, Gulf Security, and U.S. Policy

Description: This report discusses issues regarding Iran's political history and structure. It also takes a look at economic and defense policy responses for Congress, specifically focusing on Iran's nuclear capabilities.
Date: January 14, 2016
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free Trade Agreements: Impact on U.S. Trade and Implications for U.S. Trade Policy

Description: This report provides background on Free Trade Areas (FTAs) including: definitions of Free Trade Areas, why countries form FTAs, FTAs in the context of U.S. trade policy, Bush Administration policies and recent developments, the economic impact of FTAs, whether FTAs create trade or divert it, FTAs the the WTO, debate points related to FTAs, relevant legislation, and final conclusions and implications for Congress.
Date: January 3, 2003
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NAFTA at Ten: Lessons from Recent Studies

Description: This report provides an analytical summary of the economic lessons reached in support of Congress's role in the trade policy process. On January 1, 2004, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) completed its tenth year and most of its provisions are now implemented. NAFTA is a free trade agreement (FTA) that effectively added Mexico to the U.S.-Canada FTA completed in 1989. Its anniversary has sparked numerous evaluations, which are particularly relevant as the United States pursues free trade agreements with multiple Latin American countries. Most studies found that NAFTA's effects on the U.S. and Mexican economies to be modest at most.
Date: February 13, 2004
Creator: Hornbeck, J. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

India-U.S. Economic Relations

Description: This report examines the economic and trade relations of the United States and India. Since India is the world's most populous democracy, a U.S. ally in anti-terrorism efforts, and a potentially major export market, India's economic development and its trade relations with the United States are of concern to Congress.
Date: February 10, 2005
Creator: Morrison, Wayne & Kronstadt, Alan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

American Agriculture and the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Agreement

Description: This report identifies four considerations about the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) agreement that are particularly relevant for U.S. food and agriculture. It includes a partial snapshot of some of the higher-profile improvements in market access for agricultural products in the agreement, a summary of selected provisions beyond market access that are of interest to food and agriculture, a brief overview of industry reactions to the agreement, and a review of what would need to occur for the agreement to enter into force for the United States.
Date: January 8, 2016
Creator: McMinimy, Mark A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department