Congressional Research Service Reports - 52 Matching Results

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The U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement: Effects After Five Years

Description: This report provides an overview of the major trade and economic effects of the U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement (FTA) (P.L. 108-78), from the time that it went into effect (January 1, 2004) over the three years ending in 2006. It also includes detailed information on key provisions of the agreement and legislative action.
Date: March 26, 2010
Creator: Nanto, Dick K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), Free Trade, and the 2001 Summit in Shanghai

Description: On October 20-21, 2001, the Ninth APEC Leaders’ Meeting (summit) was hosted by China in Shanghai. The office theme for APEC 2001 was “Meeting New Challenges in the New Century: Achieving Common Prosperity through Participation and Cooperation” with the sub-themes of: (1) sharing the benefits of globalization and the new economy, (2) advancing trade and investment, and (3) promoting sustained economic growth. For the United States, APEC raises fundamental questions that are of special interest to Congress. One is whether consensus can be achieved on the APEC vision of free trade and investment in the Asia Pacific or whether future trade liberalization will be confined primarily to bilateral free-trade agreements or multilateral trade negotiations under the World Trade Organization.
Date: October 26, 2001
Creator: Nanto, Dick K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free Trade Agreements: Impact on U.S. Trade and Implications for U.S. Trade Policy

Description: This report looks at how free trade areas (FTAs) affect U.S. trade policy, specifically tariffs. It looks closely at the Bush Administration's Trade Promotion Policy, and pending FTAs leftover from this administration. Additionally, it looks at the Obama Administration's work in the prospective Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement (TPP).
Date: February 26, 2014
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Jackson-Vanik Amendment and Candidate Countries for WTO Accession: Issues for Congress

Description: This report gives an analysis of the unconditional most-favored-nation (MFN) status, or in U.S. statutory parlance, normal trade relations (NTR) status, which is a fundamental principle of the World Trade Organization (WTO). This conflicts with the U.S. laws under Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974 that limits trade status with several nations undergoing accession into the WTO. On June 12, 2012, Sen. Max Baucus introduced a bill with bipartisan co-sponsorship to authorize PNTR for Russia. The report includes information about MFN status and the WTO, the Jackson-Vanik Amendment restricting trade, the case of China, and prospective WTO accessions.
Date: July 26, 2012
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Trade and Investment Relations with sub-Saharan Africa and the African Growth and Opportunity Act

Description: This report looks at the pros and cons of recent legislation brought up in the 112th Congress, including the renewal of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) and how it will affect trade between the U.S. and sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).
Date: June 26, 2012
Creator: Jones, Vivian C. & Williams, Brock R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. International Trade: Trends and Forecasts

Description: The U.S. trade deficit was shrinking through June 2009 because of the global financial crisis but has begun to increase again. The crisis caused U.S. imports to drop faster than U.S. exports. The global simultaneous recession, however, implies that exporting countries cannot rely on increased foreign demand to make up for slack demand at home. Even though U.S. imports are down considerably from 2008, companies competing with imports still face diminishing demand as the domestic economy has been hit by recession. This report provides an overview of the international trade climate and U.S. trade policy. The report also discusses common perceptions about the deficit and trade balances.
Date: May 26, 2010
Creator: Nanto, Dick K. & Donnelly, J. Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trade Preferences for Developing Countries and the World Trade Organization (WTO)

Description: This report discusses the trade preferences and General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) most-favored-nation (MFN) requirements, World Trade Organization (WTO) waivers for preferential trade agreements, and WTO waivers for U.S. preference programs.
Date: October 26, 2011
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

Description: This report discusses the trade adjustment assistance (TAA) program for firms (TAAF). The TAAF program provides technical assistance to trade-affected firms to help them develop strategies and make other adjustments to remain competitive in the changing international economy.
Date: March 26, 2014
Creator: Jurenas, Remy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dumping of Exports and Antidumping Duties: Implications for the U.S. Economy

Description: Dumping in the United States is the selling of a product by a foreign producer at a price that is below the product’s sale price in the country of origin, or at a price that is lower than the cost of production. Under U.S. law such an action is considered an unfair trade practice. If that action is found to cause “material injury” to a competing domestic industry, an antidumping duty equal to the “dumping margin” will be levied against the foreign good.
Date: June 26, 2002
Creator: Elwell, Craig K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Japan: Prospects for Greater Market Openness

Description: Japan has made considerable progress in opening its economy to imports, but significant obstacles remain. This report analyzes the underlying causes of Japan's market protection and assesses the prospects for Japan moving in the direction of greater market openness.
Date: June 26, 1989
Creator: Ahearn, Raymond J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Country Applicability of the U.S. Normal Trade Relations (Most-Favored-Nation) Status

Description: The United States accords permanent normal-trade-relations (NTR) (formerly called most-favored-nation (MFN)) treatment to all its trading partners except six countries to which it is denied by law and 11 countries whose NTR status is temporary and subject to the conditions of Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974.
Date: January 26, 2001
Creator: Pregelj, Vladimir N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Country Applicability of the U.S. Normal Trade Relations (Most-Favored-Nation) Status

Description: The United States accords permanent normal-trade-relations (NTR) (formerly called most-favored-nation (MFN)) treatment to all its trading partners except four countries to which it is denied by law and 11 countries whose NTR status is temporary and subject to the conditions of Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974.
Date: February 26, 2003
Creator: Pregelj, Vladimir N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

China-U.S. Trade Issues

Description: This report provides an overview of U.S.-China commercial ties, identifies major issues of contention, describes the Trump Administration's trade policies toward China, and reviews possible outcomes.
Date: August 26, 2017
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dark Pools in Equity Trading: Policy Concerns and Recent Developments

Description: This report examines the confluence of factors that led to the rise of dark pools; the potential benefits and costs of such trading; some regulatory and congressional concerns over dark pools; recent regulatory developments by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA), which oversees broker-dealers; and some recent lawsuits and enforcement actions garnering significant media attention.
Date: September 26, 2014
Creator: Shorter, Gary & Miller, Rena S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

International Law and Agreements: Their Effect Upon U.S. Law

Description: This report provides an introduction to the roles that international law and agreements play in the United States. International law is derived from two primary sources--international agreements and customary practice. Under the U.S. legal system, international agreements can be entered into by means of a treaty or an executive agreement. The Constitution allocates primary responsibility for entering into such agreements to the executive branch, but Congress also plays an essential role.
Date: January 26, 2010
Creator: Garcia, Michael J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Export Administration Act: Controversy and Prospects

Description: In the 107th Congress, renewed efforts are underway to enact a permanent replacement for the Export Administration Act of 1979 (EAA), temporarily reauthorized in the 106th Congress until August 20, 2001. The Export Administration Act of 2001 (S. 149) was introduced on January 23, 2001. Hearings were held by the Senate Banking Committee, and the bill was reported for consideration by the full Senate by a vote of 19-1 to March 22, 2001. The difficulty in passing a comprehensive rewrite of the EAA has resulted, in part, from the continuing tension between national security and commercial concerns. Industry groups, proponents of heightened export controls, the Administration, and Congress have all participated in the reauthorization debate.
Date: March 26, 2001
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department