Congressional Research Service Reports - 394 Matching Results

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The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Funding Issues and Activities

Description: This report discusses federal funding for IT research and development. Proponents assert that federal support of IT R&D has produced positive outcomes for the country and played a crucial role in supporting long-term research into fundamental aspects of computing. Critics assert that the government, through its funding mechanisms, may be picking “winners and losers” in technological development, a role more properly residing with the private sector.
Date: May 2, 2005
Creator: Moloney Figliola, Patricia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nanotechnology: A Policy Primer

Description: This report provides a brief overview of three major topics related to nanotechnology: federal research and development (R&D) investments under the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI); U.S. international competitiveness in nanotechnology; and environmental, health, and safety (EHS) concerns. It also discusses nanomanufacturing and public attitudes toward, and understanding of, nanotechnology.
Date: June 28, 2016
Creator: Sargent, John F., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Funding Issues and Activities

Description: This report discusses the High-Performance Computing and Communications Program Act of 1991 (P.L. 102-194), which was passed to enhance the effectiveness of the various high-performance computing programs. The HPCC Program has evolved over time and is now called the Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) Program, to better reflect its expanded mission.
Date: February 22, 2006
Creator: Figliola, Patricia Moloney
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Funding Issues and Activities

Description: This report discusses federal funding for IT research and development. Proponents assert that federal support of IT R&D has produced positive outcomes for the country and played a crucial role in supporting long-term research into fundamental aspects of computing. Critics assert that the government, through its funding mechanisms, may be picking “winners and losers” in technological development, a role more properly residing with the private sector.
Date: May 4, 2006
Creator: Figliola, Patricia Moloney
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act

Description: This report provides a summary and explanation of the provisions in the HITECH Act, which is intended to promote the widespread adoption of health information technology (HIT) for the electronic sharing of clinical data among hospitals, physicians, and other health care stakeholders. It gives an overview of prior actions taken by Congress and the Administrations to promote HIT, and briefly describes efforts by the 109th and 110th Congresses to enact comprehensive HIT legislation.
Date: February 23, 2009
Creator: Redhead, C. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High Performance Computers and Export Control Policy: Issues for Congress

Description: Congress has a strong interest in export control policy with regard to technologies that may have both commercial and military applications outside of the United States. Through its constitutionally delegated authority to regulate foreign commerce, Congress has the authority to control exports for national security or foreign policy purposes. This report examines congressional interest in the exportation of High Performance Computers, which are either single computing machines (usually called supercomputers) or a cluster of easily available, high-end workstations or personal computers.
Date: January 25, 2006
Creator: McLoughlin, Glenn J. & Fergusson, Ian F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Internet: An Overview of Key Technology Policy Issues Affecting Its Use and Growth

Description: The continued growth of the Internet for personal, government, and business purposes may be affected by a number of technology policy issues being debated by Congress. Among them are access to and regulation of broadband (high-speed) Internet services, computer and Internet security, Internet privacy, the impact of “spam,” concerns about what children may encounter (such as pornography) when using the Internet, management of the Internet Domain Name System, and government information technology management. This report provides overviews of those issues, plus appendices providing a list of pending legislation, a list of acronyms, a discussion of legislation passed in earlier Congresses, and a list of other CRS reports that provide more detail on these and related topics.
Date: August 15, 2006
Creator: Kruger, Lennard G.; Moteff, John D.; Gilroy, Angele A.; Seifert, Jeffrey W.; Moloney Figliola, Patricia & Tehan, Rita
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Analysis of STEM Education Funding at the NSF: Trends and Policy Discussion

Description: This report analyzes National Science Foundation funding trends and selected closely-related STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) education policy issues to provide fiscal and policy context. It concludes with an analysis of potential policy options.
Date: January 31, 2014
Creator: Gonzalez, Heather B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities

Description: In the early 1990s, Congress recognized that several federal agencies had ongoing high performance computing programs, but no central coordinating body existed to ensure long-term coordination and planning. To provide such a framework, Congress passed the High-Performance Computing and Communications Program Act of 1991 to enhance the effectiveness of the various programs. In conjunction with the passage of the act, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy released Grand Challenges: High-Performance Computing and Communications. Current concerns are the role of the federal government in supporting IT R&D and the level of funding to allot to it. This report also looks at federal budgets for the Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program.
Date: January 13, 2012
Creator: Moloney Figliola, Patricia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities

Description: This report discusses background and funding for the Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) program (previously known as the High-Performance Computing and Communications program, or HPPCC), which involves multiagency research and development (R&D) projects. It includes information about the program, background on federal technology funding, related activities in the 112th and 111th Congresses, and potential issues for Congress to address.
Date: March 22, 2011
Creator: Moloney Figliola, Patricia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities

Description: In the early 1990s, Congress recognized that several federal agencies had ongoing high performance computing programs, but no central coordinating body existed to ensure long-term coordination and planning. To provide such a framework, Congress passed the High-Performance Computing and Communications Program Act of 1991 to enhance the effectiveness of the various programs. In conjunction with the passage of the act, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy released Grand Challenges: High-Performance Computing and Communications. Current concerns are the role of the federal government in supporting IT R&D and the level of funding to allot to it. This report also looks at federal budgets for the Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program.
Date: March 27, 2012
Creator: Figliola, Patricia Moloney
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nanotechnology: A Policy Primer

Description: Nanoscale science, engineering, and technology-commonly referred to collectively as nanotechnology-is believed by many to offer extraordinary economic and societal benefits. Congress has demonstrated continuing support for nanotechnology and has directed its attention primarily to three topics that may affect the realization of this hoped for potential: federal research and development (R&D) in nanotechnology; U.S. competitiveness; and environmental, health, and safety (EHS) concerns. This report provides an overview of these topics-which are discussed in more detail in other CRS reports-and two others: nanomanufacturing and public understanding of and attitudes toward nanotechnology.
Date: April 13, 2012
Creator: Sargent, John F., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nanotechnology: A Policy Primer

Description: This report provides an overview of: federal research and development (R&D) in nanotechnology; U.S. competitiveness; environmental, health, and safety (EHS) concerns; nanomanufacturing; and public understanding of and attitudes toward nanotechnology.
Date: January 19, 2011
Creator: Sargent, John F., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Science, Technology, and American Diplomacy: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides an overview of current U.S. international S&T policy; describes the role of the Department of State (DOS), the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), and other federal agencies; and discusses possible policy options for Congress. It focuses on international science and technology diplomacy, where American leadership in science and technology is used as a diplomatic tool to enhance another country's development and to improve understanding by other nations of U.S. values and ways of doing business.
Date: June 20, 2008
Creator: Stine, Deborah D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Obama Administration's Proposal to Establish a National Network for Manufacturing Innovation

Description: Report that discusses the proposed creation of the National Network for Manufacturing Innovation (NNMI). This includes an overview of the topic as well as discussion on the Administration's proposal, preliminary activities, legislative status, and issues for consideration.
Date: June 18, 2013
Creator: Sargent, John F., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Science and Technology Policymaking: A Primer

Description: This report provides a basic understanding of science and technology policy including the nature of S&T policy, how scientific and technical knowledge is useful for public policy decisionmaking, and an overview of the key stakeholders in science and technology policy.
Date: June 20, 2008
Creator: Stine, Deborah D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nanotechnology: A Policy Primer

Description: This report provides an overview of Congressional support for the economic and societal benefits of nanotechnology; discusses three areas of focus - federal research and development (R&D) in nanotechnology, U.S. competitiveness, and environmental, health, and safety (EHS) concerns; and also discusses nanomanufacturing and public understanding of and attitudes toward nanotechnology.
Date: May 20, 2008
Creator: Sargent, John F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The President's Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP): Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides an overview of the history of science and technology (S&T) advice to the President. It also discusses selected issues and options for Congress regarding the Office of Science and Technology Policy OSTP's Director, (OSTP) management and operations, the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), and the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC).
Date: April 12, 2013
Creator: Sargent, John F., Jr. & Shea, Dana A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department