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Electronic Payments and the U.S. Payments System

Description: This report provides a framework for understanding the paper-based and electronic components of the current U.S. payments system. It begins with a basic overview of the payments system, explaining the relative size and growth of various methods of payment. The report discusses paper-based payments and then examines the operations of wholesale and retail electronic payments. Finally, the report discusses some of the major policy issues concerning the regulation and supervision of electronic payments.
Date: June 27, 2002
Creator: Eubanks, Walter W. & Smale, Pauline
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Social Networking and Constituent Communications: Member Use of Twitter During a Two-Month Period in the 111th Congress

Description: This report examines Twitter usage by Members of Congress during August and September 2009. It includes background about Twitter and data analysis of Member registration, usage, tweets, and followers.
Date: February 3, 2010
Creator: Glassman, Matthew E.; Straus, Jacob R. & Shogan, Colleen J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Technology Innovation Program

Description: This report discusses the Technology Innovation Program (TIP) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) which was established in 2007 to replace the Advanced Technology Program (ATP). TIP was designed "to support, promote, and accelerate innovation in the United States through high-risk, high-reward research in areas of critical national need," according to the authorizing legislation. Grants are provided to small and medium-sized firms for individual projects or joint ventures with other research organizations.
Date: June 14, 2010
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The DHS Directorate of Science and Technology: Key Issues for Congress

Description: This report describes the evolving mission, organization, and assets of the S&T Directorate and the activities it conducts. It outlines key policy issues, including the balance of the directorate's programs, its priorities and how they are set, its relationships with other R&D organizations, its mission, its budgeting and financial management, and other concerns.
Date: June 9, 2008
Creator: Shea, Dana A. & Morgan, Daniel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Technology Innovation Program

Description: This report discusses the Technology Innovation Program (TIP) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), which is designed "to support, promote, and accelerate innovation in the United States through high-risk, high-reward research in areas of critical national need," according to the authorizing legislation. Grants are provided to small and medium-sized firms for individual projects or joint ventures with other research organizations.
Date: February 22, 2010
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Technology Innovation Program

Description: This report discusses the Technology Innovation Program (TIP) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), which is designed "to support, promote, and accelerate innovation in the United States through high-risk, high-reward research in areas of critical national need," according to the authorizing legislation. Grants are provided to small and medium-sized firms for individual projects or joint ventures with other research organizations.
Date: March 2, 2009
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Science and Technology Policymaking: A Primer

Description: Science and technology policy is concerned with the allocation of resources for and encouragement of scientific and engineering research and development, the use of scientific and technical knowledge to enhance the nations' response to societal challenges, and the education of Americans in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. This report describes the science and engineering community, policymakers' interest in that community and its various endeavors, and the organizations that provide science and technology policy advice to agencies of the federal government and/or Members of Congress.
Date: May 27, 2009
Creator: Stine, Deborah D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Science and Technology Policymaking: A Primer

Description: This report provides a basic understanding of science and technology policy including the nature of S&T policy, how scientific and technical knowledge is useful for public policy decisionmaking, and an overview of the key stakeholders in science and technology policy.
Date: January 27, 2009
Creator: Stine, Deborah D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The DHS Directorate of Science and Technology: Key Issues for Congress

Description: The Directorate of Science and Technology is the primary organization for research and development (R&D) in the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The directorate is headed by the Under Secretary for Science and Technology. In the past, some Members of Congress and other observers have been highly critical of the directorate's performance. Although management changes have somewhat muted this criticism in recent years, fundamental issues remain, which this report discusses in detail. Congressional policymakers are widely expected to consider reauthorization legislation for DHS during the 111th Congress. Such legislation would likely include provisions that would affect the Science and Technology Directorate.
Date: June 22, 2009
Creator: Shea, Dana A. & Morgan, Daniel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Big Data in U.S. Agriculture

Description: This report discusses big data within the context of agriculture. Many observers predict that the growth of big data will bring positive benefits through enhanced production, resource efficiency, and improved adaptation to climate change. While lauded for its potentially revolutionary applications, big data is not without issues. From a policy perspective, issues related to big data involve nearly every stage of its existence, including its collection (how it is captured), management (how it is stored and managed), and use (how it is analyzed and used). It is still unclear how big data will progress within agriculture due to technical and policy challenges, such as privacy and security, for producers and policymakers. As Congress follows the issue, a number of questions may arise, including a principal one--what is the federal role?
Date: January 6, 2016
Creator: Stubbs, Megan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Ten Selected Science and Technology Policy Studies

Description: Since the end of the Cold War in the early 1990s, a number of reports have been prepared on a broad range of science and technology (S&T) policy issues, most notably dealing with national research and development (R&D) goals, priorities, and budgets, and university-government-industry relationships. This report discusses and analyzes ten of these S&T reports.
Date: September 4, 1997
Creator: Boesman, William C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

China: Possible Missile Technology Transfers from U.S. Satellite Export Policy - Actions and Chronology

Description: This CRS Report discusses security concerns, significant congressional and administration action, and a comprehensive chronology pertaining to satellite exports to the PRC. The report discusses issues for U.S. foreign and security policy (including that on China and weapons nonproliferation), such as: What are the benefits and costs of satellite exports to China for U.S. economic and security interests? Should the United States continue, change, or cease the policy in place since the Reagan Administration that has allowed exports of satellites to China (for its launch and – increasingly – for its use)? Etc.
Date: January 11, 2002
Creator: Kan, Shirley A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

China: Possible Missile Technology Transfers from U.S. Satellite Export Policy - Actions and Chronology

Description: This CRS Report discusses security concerns, significant congressional and administration action, and a comprehensive chronology pertaining to satellite exports to the PRC. The report discusses issues for U.S. foreign and security policy (including that on China and weapons nonproliferation), such as: What are the benefits and costs of satellite exports to China for U.S. economic and security interests? Should the United States continue, change, or cease the policy in place since the Reagan Administration that has allowed exports of satellites to China (for its launch and – increasingly – for its use)? Etc.
Date: September 5, 2001
Creator: Kan, Shirley A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

China: Possible Missile Technology Transfers from U.S. Satellite Export Policy - Actions and Chronology

Description: This CRS Report discusses security concerns, significant congressional and administration action, and a comprehensive chronology pertaining to satellite exports to the PRC. The report discusses issues for U.S. foreign and security policy (including that on China and weapons nonproliferation), such as: What are the benefits and costs of satellite exports to China for U.S. economic and security interests? Should the United States continue, change, or cease the policy in place since the Reagan Administration that has allowed exports of satellites to China (for its launch and – increasingly – for its use)? Etc.
Date: March 27, 2003
Creator: Kan, Shirley A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

China: Possible Missile Technology Transfers from U.S. Satellite Export Policy - Background and Chronology

Description: Members of Congress are concerned about whether U.S. firms have provided technology or expertise to China for use in its ballistic missile program and whether a series of decisions by the Clinton Administration on satellite exports have facilitated legal or illegal transfers of missile-related technology to China. The New York Times reported in April 1998 that the Justice Department is conducting an ongoing criminal investigation into whether Loral Space and Communications (of New York), and Hughes Electronics (of Los Angeles) violated export control laws. The firms are alleged to have shared their findings with China on the cause of a Chinese rocket’s explosion while launching a U.S.-origin satellite in February 1996. In sharing their conclusions, the companies are said to have provided expertise that China could use to improve its ballistic missiles, including their guidance systems. This CRS report provides detailed background information, significant Congressional action, and a comprehensive chronology. The events summarized here, based on various open sources and interviews, pertain to various aspects of U.S. foreign and security policy.
Date: August 13, 1998
Creator: Kan, Shirley A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

China: Possible Missile Technology Transfers under U.S. Satellite Export Policy - Actions and Chronology

Description: This CRS Report discusses security concerns, significant congressional and administration action, and a comprehensive chronology pertaining to satellite exports to the PRC. The report discusses issues for U.S. foreign and security policy (including that on China and weapons nonproliferation), such as: What are the benefits and costs of satellite exports to China for U.S. economic and security interests? Should the United States continue, change, or cease the policy in place since the Reagan Administration that has allowed exports of satellites to China (for its launch and – increasingly – for its use)? Etc.
Date: October 6, 2003
Creator: Kan, Shirley A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department