Congressional Research Service Reports - 773 Matching Results

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The Advanced Technology Program

Description: This report discuses the Advanced Technology Program (ATP) that was created by P.L. 100-418, the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988, to encourage public-private cooperation in the development of pre-competitive technologies with broad application across industries
Date: July 25, 2003
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Funding Issues and Activities

Description: This report discusses federal funding for IT research and development. Proponents assert that federal support of IT R&D has produced positive outcomes for the country and played a crucial role in supporting long-term research into fundamental aspects of computing. Critics assert that the government, through its funding mechanisms, may be picking “winners and losers” in technological development, a role more properly residing with the private sector.
Date: May 2, 2005
Creator: Moloney Figliola, Patricia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Topic

Description: Cybersecurity vulnerabilities challenge governments, businesses, and individuals worldwide. Attacks have been initiated by individuals, as well as countries. Targets have included government networks, military defenses, companies, or political organizations, depending upon whether the attacker was seeking military intelligence, conducting diplomatic or industrial espionage, or intimidating political activists. This report provides links to selected authoritative resources related to cybersecurity issues.
Date: December 4, 2013
Creator: Tehan, Rita
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Topic

Description: This report provides references to analytical reports on cybersecurity from CRS, other government agencies, trade associations, and interest groups. In addition, the report lists selected cybersecurity-related websites for congressional and government agencies, news, international organizations, and organizations or institutions.
Date: July 18, 2014
Creator: Tehan, Rita
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Net Neutrality: Background and Issues

Description: This report discusses the continued debate amongst congressional policymakers regarding telecommunications reform. A major point of the ongoing discussion is whether action is needed to ensure unfettered access to the Internet.
Date: August 1, 2007
Creator: Gilroy, Angele A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

America COMPETES Acts: FY2008 to FY2013 Funding Tables

Description: The 2007 America COMPETES Act (P.L. 110-69) is designed to “invest in innovation through research and development, and to improve the competitiveness of the United States.” This report tracks accounts and activities authorized by the 2007 and 2010 COMPETES Acts during each act’s authorization period. It includes only those accounts and activities for which the acts provide a defined (i.e., specific) appropriations authorization.
Date: October 31, 2014
Creator: Gonzalez, Heather B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Telecommunications Discounts for Schools and Libraries: The “E-Rate” Program and Controversies

Description: This report addresses the controversial issues surrounding the E-rate program’s implementation and subsequent legislative measures introduced to address these issues. An additional issue, concern that minors may gain access to “inappropriate” material through the Internet has also had an impact on the E-rate program.
Date: July 28, 2005
Creator: Gilroy, Angele A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cybersecurity and Information Sharing: Legal Challenges and Solutions

Description: While considerable debate exists with regard to the best strategies for protecting America’s various cyber-systems and promoting cybersecurity, one point of general agreement amongst cyber-analysts is the perceived need for enhanced and timely exchange of cyber-threat intelligence both within the private sector and between the private sector and the government. This report examines the various legal issues that arise with respect to the sharing of cybersecurity intelligence, with a special focus on two distinct concepts: (1) sharing of cyberinformation within the government’s possession and (2) sharing of cyber-information within the possession of the private sector.
Date: March 16, 2015
Creator: Nolan, Andrew
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Internet Tax Bills in the 105th Congress

Description: This report tracks the evolution and content of the Internet tax freedom bills. In general, the bills would impose a federal moratorium on the ability of state and local governments to impose taxes on certain aspects of the Internet and would establish a temporary federal commission to study selected issues and make policy recommendations.
Date: August 21, 1998
Creator: Noto, Nonna A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Point & Click: Internet Searching Techniques

Description: This report discusses criteria to consider when judging the quality of an internet site and the best strategies for locating information on the World Wide Web. There are two ways to search the Internet. The first is to use subject guides (e.g., Yahoo, Galaxy, or WWW Virtual Library), which are compiled by human indexers. These present an organized hierarchy of categories so a searcher can “drill down” through their links. The second option is to use a search engine (e.g., Alta Vista, Hotbot, or InfoSeek), an automated software robot which indexes Web pages and retrieves information based on relevancy-ranked algorithms. This report describes how search engines index the World Wide Web, as well as various features common to most search engines. In addition, the report suggests searching tips for retrieving the most precise information. Finally, the report discusses Usenet news groups, email discussion lists, gophers, and miscellaneous Web resources.
Date: April 6, 1998
Creator: Tehan, Rita
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Broadband Internet Regulation and Access: Background and Issues

Description: This is one part in the series of reports that provide a background and analysis, and most recent developments regarding broadband or high-speed Internet access. The report starts out by answering questions; what is broadband and why is it important? This report also discusses broadband technologies, the status of broadband deployment and the related policy issues, as well as the legislation in congress.
Date: July 31, 2007
Creator: Gilroy, Angele A. & Kruger, Lennard G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Digital Television: An Overview

Description: Digital television (DTV) is a new television service representing the most significant development in television technology since the advent of color television in the 1950s. DTV can provide sharper pictures, a wider screen, CD-quality sound, better color rendition, and other new services currently being developed. This report discusses a key issue in the Congressional debate over the digital transition has been addressing the millions of American over-the-air households whose existing analog televisions will require converter boxes in order to receive digital signals when the analog signal is turned off.
Date: May 5, 2006
Creator: Kruger, Lennard G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Broadband Internet Regulation and Access: Background and Issues

Description: This report discusses broadband Internet, examining what it is and the various technologies that allow for its transmission. Broadband or high-speed Internet access is provided by technologies that give users the ability to send and receive data at volumes and speeds far greater than access over traditional telephone lines; it also provides a continuous, "always on" connection (no need to dial-up) and a "two-way" capability, that is, the ability to both receive (download) and transmit (upload) data at high speeds.
Date: May 29, 2007
Creator: Gilroy, Angele A. & Kruger, Lennard G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dual-Use Biological Equipment: Difficulties in Domestic Regulation

Description: A question in the current debate over chemical and biological terrorism is: how well do current United States policies limit opportunities to terrorist groups for acquisition of such weapons? The domestic purchase and use of “dual-use” biological equipment, such as fermenters, centrifuges, and other equipment, is one area suggested as potentially providing opportunities for terrorist, biological weapons development. Dual-use equipment has both legitimate civilian and military use. Regulating international sale of dual-use equipment is used as a nonproliferation policy tool. Similar regulation of domestic sales has not been employed. This report will discuss the difficulties of applying domestic controls on dual-use biological equipment and the potential advantages and disadvantages of doing so.
Date: January 22, 2004
Creator: Shea, Dana A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Internet Privacy: Overview and Pending Legislation

Description: Internet privacy issues encompass concerns about the collection of personally identifiable information from visitors to Web sites, as well as debate over law enforcement or employer monitoring of electronic mail and Web usage. In the wake of the September 11 terrorist attacks, debate over the issue of law enforcement monitoring has intensified, with some advocating increased tools for law enforcement to track down terrorists, and others cautioning that fundamental tenets of democracy, such as privacy, not be endangered in that pursuit. This report provides a brief overview of Internet privacy issues and tracks pending legislation.
Date: November 13, 2001
Creator: Smith, Marcia S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Broadband Internet Access and the Digital Divide: Federal Assistance Programs

Description: This report examines issues regarding broadband access in the U.S., more specifically the "digital divide,” which is a term that has been used to characterize a gap between “information haves and have-nots,” or in other words, between those Americans who use or have access to telecommunications technologies (e.g., telephones, computers, the Internet) and those who do not.
Date: March 14, 2007
Creator: Kruger, Lennard G. & Gilroy, Angele A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

“Junk E-mail”: An Overview of Issues and Legislation Concerning Unsolicited Commercial Electronic Mail (“Spam”)

Description: This report discusses unsolicited commercial e-mail (UCE), also called “spam” or “junk e-mail.” Not only can it be a nuisance, but its cost may be passed on to consumers through higher charges from Internet service providers who must upgrade their systems to handle the traffic.
Date: November 6, 2001
Creator: Smith, Marcia S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

“Junk E-mail”: An Overview of Issues and Legislation Concerning Unsolicited Commercial Electronic Mail (“Spam”)

Description: This report discusses unsolicited commercial e-mail (UCE), also called “spam” or “junk e-mail.” Not only can it be a nuisance, but its cost may be passed on to consumers through higher charges from Internet service providers who must upgrade their systems to handle the traffic.
Date: March 1, 2002
Creator: Smith, Marcia S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department