Congressional Research Service Reports - 772 Matching Results

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Science and Technology Policy: Issues for the 109th Congress

Description: Science and technology have a pervasive influence over a wide range of issues confronting the nation. Decisions on how much federal funding to invest in research and development (R&D) and determining what programs have the highest priority, for example, may have implications for homeland security, new high technology industries, government/private sector cooperation in R&D, and myriad other areas. This report indicates the sweep of science and technology in many public policy issues, such as global climate change, stem cell research, patent protection, and telecommunications reform. This report also addresses key issues that directly affect, or are affected by, science and technology.
Date: September 1, 2006
Creator: Gottron, Frank
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Science and Technology Policy: Issues for the 109th Congress

Description: Science and technology have a pervasive influence over a wide range of issues confronting the nation. Decisions on how much federal funding to invest in research and development (R&D), and determining what programs have the highest priority, for example, may have implications for homeland security, new high technology industries, government/private sector cooperation in R&D, and myriad other areas. This report indicates the sweep of science and technology in many public policy issues, although it cannot provide a comprehensive examination of every science or technology issue which may be of interest to Congress. This report identifies other CRS reports that treat most of those issues in more depth. It is updated occasionally.
Date: August 22, 2005
Creator: Smith, Marcia S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The President's Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP): Issues for Congress

Description: Congress established the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) through the National Science and Technology Policy, Organization, and Priorities Act of 1976. The act states that “The primary function of the OSTP Director is to provide, within the Executive Office of the President [EOP], advice on the scientific, engineering, and technological aspects of issues that require attention at the highest level of Government.” Issues for Congress to consider regarding OSTP are the nomination of the OSTP director by the President; engagement of OSTP with China; the title, rank, and responsibilities of the OSTP director; OSTP policy foci; OSTP funding and staffing; roles and functions of the OSTP and NSTC; and the status and influence of the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST).
Date: February 10, 2012
Creator: Sargent, John F., Jr. & Shea, Dana A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The U.S. Science and Technology Workforce

Description: This report provides an overview of the status of the U.S. science and technology (S&T) workforce, and identifies some of the issues and options that are currently being discussed in Congress. The report concludes with a summary of some pertinent activities in the 110th Congress.
Date: June 20, 2008
Creator: Stine, Deborah D. & Matthews, Christine M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Desalination and Membrane Technologies: Federal Research and Adoption Issues

Description: This report discusses emerging technologies (e.g., forward osmosis, nanocomposite and chlorine resistant membranes) show promise for reducing desalination costs. It discusses the Research to support development of emerging technologies and to reduce desalination's environmental and social impacts.
Date: January 8, 2013
Creator: Carter, Nicole T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Desalination and Membrane Technologies: Federal Research and Adoption Issues

Description: This report discusses emerging technologies (e.g., forward osmosis, nanocomposite and chlorine resistant membranes) that show promise for reducing desalination costs. It also discusses the research to support development of emerging technologies and to reduce desalination's environmental and social impacts.
Date: January 2, 2015
Creator: Carter, Nicole T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate Over Government Policy

Description: This report discusses the ongoing congressional interest in the pace of U.S. technological advancement due to its influence on U.S. economic growth, productivity, and international competitiveness. Because technology can contribute to economic growth and productivity increases, congressional interest has focused on how to augment private-sector technological development. Legislative activity over the past decade has created a policy for technology development, albeit an ad hoc one. Because of the lack of consensus on the scope and direction of a national policy, Congress has taken an incremental approach aimed at creating new mechanisms to facilitate technological advancement in particular areas and making changes and improvements as necessary.
Date: January 27, 2003
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate Over Government Policy

Description: This report discusses the ongoing congressional interest in the pace of U.S. technological advancement due to its influence on U.S. economic growth, productivity, and international competitiveness. Because technology can contribute to economic growth and productivity increases, congressional interest has focused on how to augment private-sector technological development. Legislative activity over the past decade has created a policy for technology development, albeit an ad hoc one. Because of the lack of consensus on the scope and direction of a national policy, Congress has taken an incremental approach aimed at creating new mechanisms to facilitate technological advancement in particular areas and making changes and improvements as necessary.
Date: May 8, 2003
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineered Nanoscale Materials and Derivative Products: Regulatory Challenges

Description: The purpose of this report is to consider certain challenges faced by federal EHS (environmental, human health and safety) risk assessors, risk managers, and policy makers, and to discuss possible legislative approaches to address those challenges.
Date: July 18, 2008
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Computer Services Personnel: Overtime Pay Under the Fair Labor Standards Act

Description: The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (FLSA), as amended, is the primary federal statute in the area of minimum wages and overtime pay. Through administrative rulemaking, the Secretary of Labor has established two tests through which to define eligibility under the Section 13(a)(1) exemption: a duties test and an earnings test. In the 106th Congress, legislation was introduced by Representatives Andrews and Lazio that would have increased the scope of the exemption: first, by expanding the range of exempt job titles, and then, through a relative reduction in the value of the earnings threshold or test. For example, were the minimum wage increased to $6.15 per hour, as pending proposals would do, the value of the computer services exemption threshold would be 4.5 times the federal minimum wage. Ultimately, neither bill was enacted, but the issue has re-emerged as H.R. 1545 (Andrews) and H.R. 546 (Quinn).
Date: February 7, 2005
Creator: Whittaker, William G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Computer Services Personnel: Overtime Pay Under the Fair Labor Standards Act

Description: The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (FLSA), as amended, is the primary federal statute in the area of minimum wages and overtime pay. Through administrative rulemaking, the Secretary of Labor has established two tests through which to define eligibility under the Section 13(a)(1) exemption: a duties test and an earnings test. In the 106th Congress, legislation was introduced by Representatives Andrews and Lazio that would have increased the scope of the exemption: first, by expanding the range of exempt job titles, and then, through a relative reduction in the value of the earnings threshold or test. For example, were the minimum wage increased to $6.15 per hour, as pending proposals would do, the value of the computer services exemption threshold would be 4.5 times the federal minimum wage. Ultimately, neither bill was enacted, but the issue has re-emerged as H.R. 1545 (Andrews) and H.R. 546 (Quinn).
Date: September 18, 2001
Creator: Whittaker, William G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Computer Services Personnel: Overtime Pay Under the Fair Labor Standards Act

Description: The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (FLSA), as amended, is the primary federal statute in the area of minimum wages and overtime pay. Through administrative rulemaking, the Secretary of Labor has established two tests through which to define eligibility under the Section 13(a)(1) exemption: a duties test and an earnings test. In the 106th Congress, legislation was introduced by Representatives Andrews and Lazio that would have increased the scope of the exemption: first, by expanding the range of exempt job titles, and then, through a relative reduction in the value of the earnings threshold or test. For example, were the minimum wage increased to $6.15 per hour, as pending proposals would do, the value of the computer services exemption threshold would be 4.5 times the federal minimum wage. Ultimately, neither bill was enacted, but the issue has re-emerged as H.R. 1545 (Andrews) and H.R. 546 (Quinn).
Date: January 6, 2002
Creator: Whittaker, William G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Computer Services Personnel: Overtime Pay Under the Fair Labor Standards Act

Description: The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (FLSA), as amended, is the primary federal statute in the area of minimum wages and overtime pay. Through administrative rulemaking, the Secretary of Labor has established two tests through which to define eligibility under the Section 13(a)(1) exemption: a duties test and an earnings test. In the 106th Congress, legislation was introduced by Representatives Andrews and Lazio that would have increased the scope of the exemption: first, by expanding the range of exempt job titles, and then, through a relative reduction in the value of the earnings threshold or test. For example, were the minimum wage increased to $6.15 per hour, as pending proposals would do, the value of the computer services exemption threshold would be 4.5 times the federal minimum wage. Ultimately, neither bill was enacted, but the issue has re-emerged as H.R. 1545 (Andrews) and H.R. 546 (Quinn).
Date: January 6, 2003
Creator: Whittaker, William G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department