Congressional Research Service Reports - 721 Matching Results

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Characteristics of and Reporting Requirements for Selected Tax-Exempt Organizations

Description: This report addresses in summary fashion the differences among several kinds of tax-exempt organizations described in Internal Revenue Code [IRC] subsections 501(c)(3), 501(c)(4), 501(c)(5), 501(c)(6), and section 527. Each of these types of organization has a unique statutory definition, is subject to certain statutory limitations on its activities, enjoys certain benefits from obtaining tax-exempt status, and must share certain information with the general public. Following the report is a table which summarizes this information.
Date: March 8, 2001
Creator: Morris, Marie B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Charitable Choice, Faith-Based Initiatives, and TANF

Description: The 107th Congress did not pass tax incentives for private giving or legislation intended to assure equal treatment of religious organizations as providers of social services (provisions in S. 1924, the original CARE bill). The House voted to extend charitable choice rules to numerous new programs (H.R. 7), as the President urged, but the Senate refused. However, in an Executive Order, President Bush on December 12, 2002, directed six cabinet-level departments and the Agency for International Development (AID) to bring policies concerning social service programs into line with charitable choice principles set forth in the Order.
Date: January 3, 2003
Creator: Burke, Vee
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Charitable Choice, Faith-Based Initiatives, and TANF

Description: The 108th Congress has resumed efforts to pass tax incentives for private giving (S. 476, passed by the Senate on April 9, and H.R. 7, introduced May 7, 2003). However, these bills do not contain provisions intended to promote religious organizations as providers of federally funded social services – charitable choice provisions.. The House voted in 2001 to extend charitable choice rules, which now apply to a limited set of programs, to numerous new programs (H.R. 7 in the 107th Congress), as the President urged, but the Senate refused. However, in an Executive Order, President Bush on December 12, 2002, directed six cabinet-level departments and the Agency for International Development (AID) to bring policies concerning social service programs into line with charitable choice principles set forth in the Order.
Date: May 9, 2003
Creator: Burke, Vee
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Charitable Choice, Faith-Based Initiatives, and TANF

Description: The 108th Congress has resumed efforts to pass tax incentives for private giving (S. 476, passed by the Senate on April 9, and H.R. 7, introduced May 7, 2003). However, these bills do not contain provisions intended to promote religious organizations as providers of federally funded social services – charitable choice provisions.. The House voted in 2001 to extend charitable choice rules, which now apply to a limited set of programs, to numerous new programs (H.R. 7 in the 107th Congress), as the President urged, but the Senate refused. However, in an Executive Order, President Bush on December 12, 2002, directed six cabinet-level departments and the Agency for International Development (AID) to bring policies concerning social service programs into line with charitable choice principles set forth in the Order.
Date: September 30, 2003
Creator: Burke, Vee
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Charitable Choice, Faith-Based Initiatives, and TANF

Description: The Senate Finance Committee version of H.R. 7, approved on July 16, 2002, does not contain the “charitable choice” title of the House-passed H.R. 7; nor does it include a compromise “faith-based” provision (from S. 1924 as introduced) that sought to assure equal treatment for nongovernmental providers of almost all federally-funded social services. Remaining in the Senate Finance bill are tax incentives to promote private giving. The Charitable Choice Act of 2001 (Title II of the House bill) would apply its rules, which are significantly different from those in four existing charitable choice laws, to nine new program areas.
Date: August 21, 2002
Creator: Burke, Vee
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Charitable Choice Provisions of H.R. 7

Description: H.R. 7, the Community Solutions Act, on July 19 won House passage without amendment by a vote of 233-198. The bill includes basic elements of President Bush’s faith-based initiatives: tax incentives for private giving–scaled back from original proposals (Title I)–and expansion of charitable choice (Title II). (Title III deals with individual development accounts.)
Date: July 21, 2001
Creator: Burke, Vee
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Charitable Contributions of Food Inventory: Proposals for Change

Description: Early in the 109th Congress, both S. 6, the Family and Community Protection Act of 2005, and S. 94, the Good Samaritan Hunger Relief Tax Incentive Act, have been introduced to encourage gifts of food by businesses for charitable purposes. While current law provides a deduction only to C corporations, these bills would expand the tax break to all business entities. The value of the existing deduction is the corporation’s basis in the donated product plus one half of the amount of appreciation, as long as that amount is less than twice the corporation’s basis in the product.
Date: January 31, 2005
Creator: Talley, Louis Alan & Jackson, Pamela J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Child and Dependent Care Tax Benefits: How They Work and Who Receives Them

Description: This report provides a general overview of the child and dependent care tax benefits, focusing on eligibility requirements and benefit calculation. The report also includes some summary data on these benefits which highlight some of the characteristics of claimants.
Date: October 26, 2017
Creator: Crandall-Hollick, Margot L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Child Tax Credit and the President's Tax Cut Plan

Description: The child tax credit was enacted as part of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997. The current credit is $500 per qualifying child. President Bush has proposed increasing the child tax credit to $1,000 per qualifying child. The President has also proposed making permanent the temporary rule in current law that allows the child tax credit to offset a taxpayer’s alternative minimum tax.
Date: March 30, 2001
Creator: Esenwein, Gregg A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cigarette Taxes to Fund Health Care Reform: An Economic Analysis

Description: A cigarette excise tax increase of 75 cents per pack has been proposed to finance part of the President's universal health care program. The tax enjoys considerable public support, would raise about $11 billion per year, and would be relatively simple to administer because it would increase an existing manufacturer's excise tax. This report discusses these rationales, as well as other effects of and concerns about the tax, organized into topics of market failure as a justification for the tax (i.e., economic efficiency); potential for revenue; equity; and the job loss the tax might cause in tobacco growing regions.
Date: March 8, 1994
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G. & Zimmerman, Dennis
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coal Excise Tax Refunds: United States v. Clintwood Elkhorn Mining Co.

Description: In 1998, a U.S. district court held that the imposition of the coal excise tax, or black lung excise tax, on coal destined for export was unconstitutional. The process of refunding the tax has been controversial. This is because some coal producers and exporters have attempted to bypass the limitations in the Internal Revenue Code's refund scheme for bringing suit under the Export Clause in the Court of Federal Claims, seeking damages from the United States in the amount of coal excise taxes paid. The Federal Circuit Court of Appeals held the court had jurisdiction under the Tucker Act to hear the suits and allowed them as an alternative to the Code's refund process. However, in a 2008 decision, United States v. Clintwood Elkhorn Mining Co., the Supreme Court unanimously held that taxpayers must comply with the Code's administrative refund process before bringing suit. Meanwhile, H.R. 1762 and S. 373 would provide an alternative method for taxpayers to receive coal excise tax refunds.
Date: May 16, 2008
Creator: Lunder, Erika
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of Tax Incentives of Domestic Manufacturing: 108th Congress

Description: The enacted provision of this legislation (H.R. 4520), following the passage of the Senate’s version (then S. 1637) and the House bill (H.R. 4520) followed the Senate version, which allowed a deduction and would cover unincorporated firms as well as corporations. However, the proposal contained the broader definition of manufacturing in the House bill which included oil and gas extraction, utilities, construction, and electricity. This report discusses the provisions in these two versions of the subsidy as well as some of the issues surrounding alternative methods of providing a manufacturing subsidy.
Date: January 25, 2005
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of Tax Incentives of Domestic Manufacturing in Current Legislative Proposals

Description: This report presents two approaches that have quite different implications for tax administration and Compliance. First, additional domestic investment would have both a direct tax benefit effect, and an indirect effect through increasing the ratio of domestic to world production. Secondly, if one considers the other provisions of H.R. 2896 and S. 1637, these provisions provide benefits (in some cases quite large benefits) to investment overseas that could more than offset any domestic incentive.
Date: November 19, 2003
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conservation Reserve Payments and Self-Employment Taxes

Description: Farmers enrolling their land in the Department of Agriculture's Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) receive payments for refraining from farming their property and for engaging in certain conservation practices mandated by the Department of Agriculture. These payments are described in the contract with the Department of Agriculture as "rental payments." Farmers would like to treat the income as "rental income" because it would not be subject to self-employment taxes, but the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) insists that under certain conditions, the payments are income from the trade or business of farming and thus subject to self-employment taxes.
Date: May 1, 2000
Creator: Morris, Marie B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conservation Reserve Program Payments: Self-Employment Income, Rental Income, or Something Else?

Description: This report outlines the history of the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), the changing positions of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), pertinent case law, and other provisions of the Internal Revenue Code (IRC). Several possible approaches to the taxation of CRP payments are discussed.
Date: April 14, 2008
Creator: Pettit, Carol A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Corporate Expatriation, Inversions, and Mergers: Tax Issues

Description: This report discusses corporate inversions and mergers; these actions change the parent company to one based in another country with a low tax rate to avoid paying U.S. corporate taxes. It discusses past attempts and legislation outlawing varying forms of inversion, the most recent regulations issued by the Treasury Department to decrease inversions, and policy options that would remove the incentive for companies to invert.
Date: August 17, 2017
Creator: Marples, Donald J. & Gravelle, Jane G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department