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Energy Tax Policy: Issues in the 112th Congress

Description: The economic rationale for interventions in energy markets helps inform the debate surrounding energy tax policy. This report begins by providing background on the economic rationale for energy market interventions, highlighting various market failures. After identifying possible market failures in the production and consumption of energy, possible interventions are discussed. The report concludes with an analysis of the current status of energy tax policy.
Date: March 28, 2012
Creator: Sherlock, Molly F. & Crandall-Hollick, Margot L.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application Process for Seeking 501(c)(3) Tax-Exempt Status

Description: Charities and other entities seeking tax-exempt status as 501(c)(3) organizations generally must apply to the Internal Revenue Service. This report provides an overview of the application process.
Date: January 7, 2005
Creator: Lunder, Erika
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IRS Reform: Innocent Spouse Rule

Description: Married couples filing joint tax returns are liable individually and as a couple for all taxes due on the return with a limited exemption for innocent spouses. This report discusses joint and several liability, which has been the subject of much criticism and calls for reform or elimination.
Date: July 2, 1998
Creator: Ripy, Thomas B.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lobbying Regulations on Non-Profit Organizations

Description: This report is intended to provide a brief overview of the various potential restrictions, rules or regulations upon lobbying activities of non-profit organizations.
Date: May 19, 1998
Creator: Maskell, Jack
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lobbying Regulations on Non-Profit Organizations

Description: This report is intended to provide a brief overview of the various potential restrictions or regulations on lobbying activities of non-profit organizations. Public charities, social welfare organizations, religious groups, and other non-profit, tax-exempt organizations are not generally prohibited from engaging in all lobbying or public policy advocacy merely because of their tax-exempt status.
Date: May 7, 2008
Creator: Maskell, Jack H.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lobbying Regulations on Non-Profit Organizations

Description: This report is intended to provide a brief overview of the various potential restrictions or regulations on lobbying activities of non-profit organizations. Public charities, social welfare organizations, religious groups, and other non-profit, tax-exempt organizations are not generally prohibited from engaging in all lobbying or public policy advocacy merely because of their tax-exempt status.
Date: November 26, 2002
Creator: Maskell, Jack H.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Excise Tax on Tires: Where the Rubber Meets the Road

Description: This report examines the history of the federal excise tax on tires. The excise tax on tires was first levied in 1918 mainly because of revenue needs brought about by World War I. The tax was reduced after the war, and then repealed in 1926. The levy was reintroduced during the Great Depression at a time when federal individual income tax revenues were plummeting, and was increased to help finance World War II. Today, the premise for the excise tax on tires is that heavier vehicles cause greater damage to both roadways and bridges, and that the excise tax on tires resembles a pricing mechanism that is a proxy for highway wear-and-tear charges.
Date: October 6, 2005
Creator: Talley, Louis A. & Jackson, Pamela J.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estate Tax Legislation in the 110th Congress

Description: This report examines current legislation regarding estate taxes. Under provisions of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (EGTRRA, P.L. 107-16), the estate tax exclusion is scheduled to continue to rise, from $2 million for decedents dying in 2008, to $3.5 million in 2009. The estate tax is repealed for decedents dying in 2010 only.
Date: February 14, 2008
Creator: Noto, Nonna A.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Income Tax Treatment of the Family

Description: The first section summarizes the major features of the tax law affecting families and family choices, and how they developed over time, including the relatively recent introduction of large benefits for children at low and moderate income levels, a reversal of a trend in the past that tended to reduce these benefits through the erosion of the real value of the personal exemptions. It also summarizes the origin of the marriage penalty and marriage bonus. The following two sections first discuss general equity issues, and then apply the ability-to-pay standard to examine how tax burdens vary by family size, across the income spectrum. The final section examines the marriage penalties and bonuses.
Date: December 19, 2006
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Internet Taxation: Issues and Legislation

Description: The Internet Tax Freedom Act (ITFA) placed a three-year moratorium on the ability of state and local governments to (1) impose new taxes on Internet access or (2) impose any multiple or discriminatory taxes on electronic commerce. The act grandfathered the state and local access taxes that were “... generally imposed and actually enforced prior to October 1, 1998 ....” This report discusses issues of state and local taxation of Internet transactions because commerce conducted by parties in different states over the Internet.
Date: February 3, 2005
Creator: Maguire, Steven & Noto, Nonna A.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Introduction to the Design of the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit

Description: This report discusses the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC), which is a federal provision that reduces the income tax liability of taxpayers claiming the credit. These taxpayers are typically investors in real estate development projects that have traded cash for the tax credits to support the production of affordable housing. The credit is intended to lower the financing costs of housing developments so that the rental prices of units can be lower than market rates, and thus, presumably, affordable.
Date: October 15, 2008
Creator: Keightley, Mark P.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Introduction to the Design of the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit

Description: This report discusses the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC), which is a federal provision that reduces the income tax liability of taxpayers claiming the credit. These taxpayers are typically investors in real estate development projects that have traded cash for the tax credits to support the production of affordable housing. The credit is intended to lower the financing costs of housing developments so that the rental prices of units can be lower than market rates, and thus, presumably, affordable.
Date: August 22, 2008
Creator: Keightley, Mark P.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Introduction to the Design of the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit

Description: This report discusses the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC), which is a federal provision that reduces the income tax liability of taxpayers claiming the credit. These taxpayers are typically investors in real estate development projects that have traded cash for the tax credits to support the production of affordable housing. The credit is intended to lower the financing costs of housing developments so that the rental prices of units can be lower than market rates, and thus, presumably, affordable.
Date: June 20, 2008
Creator: Keightley, Mark P.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Introduction to the Design of the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit

Description: This report discusses the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC), which is a federal provision that reduces the income tax liability of taxpayers claiming the credit. These taxpayers are typically investors in real estate development projects that have traded cash for the tax credits to support the production of affordable housing. The credit is intended to lower the financing costs of housing developments so that the rental prices of units can be lower than market rates, and thus, presumably, affordable.
Date: January 24, 2008
Creator: Jackson, Pamela J.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calculating Estate Tax Liability: 2001 to 2011 and Beyond

Description: This report provides a basic explanation of how to calculate the federal estate tax liability for a taxable estate of any given size, using the schedule of graduated marginal tax rates and the applicable exclusion amount or the applicable credit amount for the year of death. The “applicable exclusion amount” is the amount of any decedent’s taxable estate that is free from tax. It is known informally as the estate tax “exemption.” The “applicable credit amount” or “unified credit” is the corresponding tax credit. It is equal to the tax that would be due on a taxable estate that is the size of the applicable exclusion amount.
Date: May 7, 2008
Creator: Noto, Nonna A.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calculating Estate Tax Liability: 2001 to 2011 and Beyond

Description: This report provides a basic explanation of how to calculate the federal estate tax liability for a taxable estate of any given size, using the schedule of graduated marginal tax rates and the applicable exclusion amount or the applicable credit amount for the year of death. The “applicable exclusion amount” is the amount of any decedent’s taxable estate that is free from tax. It is known informally as the estate tax “exemption.” The “applicable credit amount” or “unified credit” is the corresponding tax credit. It is equal to the tax that would be due on a taxable estate that is the size of the applicable exclusion amount.
Date: November 3, 2006
Creator: Noto, Nonna A.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic Analysis of the Charitable Contribution Deduction for Non-Itemizers

Description: The 107th Congress version of (H.R. 7), passed by the House, had eight new tax provisions designed to benefit charities and charitable giving, the most important one being the charitable deduction for non-itemizers.This report focuses on the economic effect of the deduction for nonitemizers, assessing the incentive such deductions would create for increased charitable giving.
Date: April 29, 2005
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Average Effective Corporate Tax Rates: 1959 to 2005

Description: This report examines average effective corporate tax rates of domestic nonfinancial corporations. Generally, the average effective corporate tax rate is total corporate tax receipts divided by corporate profits.
Date: September 6, 2006
Creator: Maguire, Steven
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Research Tax Credit: Current Law and Policy Issues for the 114th Congress

Description: Technological innovation is a primary engine of long-term economic growth, and research and development (R&D) serves as the lifeblood of innovation. The federal government encourages businesses to invest more in R&D than they otherwise would in several ways, including a tax credit for increases in spending on qualified research above a base amount. This report describes the current status of the credit, summarizes its legislative history, discusses policy issues it raises, and describes legislation to modify and extend it.
Date: May 22, 2015
Creator: Guenther, Gary
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Taxes and Offshore Outsourcing

Description: The impact of taxes on international trade and foreign investment has had a place in tax policy debates for decades, although its prominence has waxed and waned. The debate has tended to grow more heated during times of domestic economic weakness and high unemployment ; questions arise during such times over whether taxes contribute to such weakness by discouraging exports (or encouraging imports) or by encouraging U.S. firms to move abroad. In recent months, the debate over international taxation again became prominent as a part of the wider debate over “outsourcing.” With taxes, the debate asks how the current tax system likely affects outsourcing, and whether alternative tax policies designed to limit the phenomenon might be desirable. This report applies economic analysis to both questions.
Date: December 15, 2004
Creator: Brumbaugh, David L.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tax Deductions for Catastrophic Risk Insurance Reserves: Explanation and Economic Analysis

Description: According to the Insurance Services Office, Inc., (ISO), the property/casualty (p/c) insurance industry paid $62.2 billion in catastrophe losses from 24 disasters and more than 4.4 million claims in 2005, making 2005 the most costly year for catastrophe losses. This report begins by providing some background on the market for catastrophe insurance. It continues by describing the proposal for tax-deductible reserve accounts as set forth in H.R. 164/S. 926 of the 110th Congress, and concludes by providing an economic analysis of the plan.
Date: June 5, 2008
Creator: King, Rawle O.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tax Gap: Administration Proposal to Require Information Reporting on Merchant Payment Card Reimbursements

Description: The high current and forecast budget deficits as well as pay-as-you-go (PAYGO) procedures have resulted in congressional and executive branch interest in raising additional revenue through proposals for improved tax compliance. The Bush Administration’s FY2009 budget includes a proposal (the proposal) to require each payment card processor to inform the IRS on the net dollar amount paid to reimburse each merchant (i.e., seller) for his payment card receipts in a calendar year. Payment cards consist of both credit cards and debit cards. This report examines the proposal by describing current law, presenting the proposal contained in the FY2009 budget, describing the structure of the payment card industry, analyzing the justifications for the proposal, explaining the criticisms of the proposal, and offering concluding observations.
Date: April 28, 2008
Creator: Bickley, James M.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department