Congressional Research Service Reports - 697 Matching Results

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Coal Excise Tax Refunds: United States v. Clintwood Elkhorn Mining Co.

Description: In 1998, a U.S. district court held that the imposition of the coal excise tax, or black lung excise tax, on coal destined for export was unconstitutional. The process of refunding the tax has been controversial. This is because some coal producers and exporters have attempted to bypass the limitations in the Internal Revenue Code's refund scheme for bringing suit under the Export Clause in the Court of Federal Claims, seeking damages from the United States in the amount of coal excise taxes paid. The Federal Circuit Court of Appeals held the court had jurisdiction under the Tucker Act to hear the suits and allowed them as an alternative to the Code's refund process. However, in a 2008 decision, United States v. Clintwood Elkhorn Mining Co., the Supreme Court unanimously held that taxpayers must comply with the Code's administrative refund process before bringing suit. Meanwhile, H.R. 1762 and S. 373 would provide an alternative method for taxpayers to receive coal excise tax refunds.
Date: May 16, 2008
Creator: Lunder, Erika
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Statutory Individual Income Tax Rates and Other Elements of the Tax System: 1988 through 2008

Description: This report summarizes information about the tax brackets and other key elements of the tax system that determine taxpayer's statutory marginal tax rate. Such elements include tax brackets, exemptions, standard deductions, etc. Statutory individual income tax rates, also referred to as “statutory marginal tax rates,” are the rates of tax applicable to the last (marginal) increment of taxable income. Statutory rates play an important role in determining the real marginal tax rates, which affect taxpayers' economic behavior.
Date: May 21, 2008
Creator: Shvedov, Maxim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Taxation of Overseas Investment and Income: Background and Issues

Description: This report analyzes how the current U.S. tax system applies to foreign investment undertaken by U.S. firms abroad, and how that application was changed by recent legislation. It also assesses the impact of the tax system and legislation, and concludes by discussing a variety of issues in international taxation that Congress may face in 2008 and beyond. It begins with a brief examination of the data on international investment.
Date: May 21, 2008
Creator: Marples, Donald J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tax Treaty Legislation in the 110th Congress: Explanation and Economic Analysis

Description: This report discusses the proposals that are designed to curb “treaty shopping” — instances where a foreign parent firm in one country receives its U.S.-source income through an intermediate subsidiary in a third country that is signatory to a tax-reducing treaty with the United States.
Date: May 22, 2008
Creator: Marples, Donald J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tax Deductions for Catastrophic Risk Insurance Reserves: Explanation and Economic Analysis

Description: According to the Insurance Services Office, Inc., (ISO), the property/casualty (p/c) insurance industry paid $62.2 billion in catastrophe losses from 24 disasters and more than 4.4 million claims in 2005, making 2005 the most costly year for catastrophe losses. This report begins by providing some background on the market for catastrophe insurance. It continues by describing the proposal for tax-deductible reserve accounts as set forth in H.R. 164/S. 926 of the 110th Congress, and concludes by providing an economic analysis of the plan.
Date: June 5, 2008
Creator: King, Rawle O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Tax Policy: History and Current Issues

Description: This report discusses the history, current posture, and outlook for the federal energy tax policy. It also discusses current energy tax proposals and major energy tax provisions enacted in the 109th Congress.
Date: June 10, 2008
Creator: Lazzari, Salvatore
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Introduction to the Design of the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit

Description: This report discusses the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC), which is a federal provision that reduces the income tax liability of taxpayers claiming the credit. These taxpayers are typically investors in real estate development projects that have traded cash for the tax credits to support the production of affordable housing. The credit is intended to lower the financing costs of housing developments so that the rental prices of units can be lower than market rates, and thus, presumably, affordable.
Date: June 20, 2008
Creator: Keightley, Mark P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Alternative Minimum Tax for Individuals: Legislative Activity in the 110th Congress

Description: The alternative minimum tax (AMT) for individuals was originally enacted to ensure that all taxpayers, especially high-income taxpayers, pay at least a minimum amount of federal taxes. However, the AMT is not indexed for inflation, and this factor, combined with recent reductions in the regular income tax, has greatly expanded the potential impact of the AMT. This report explains legislation for the FY2009 budget compromise, which includes an offset AMT patch.
Date: July 1, 2008
Creator: Maguire, Steven & Teefy, Jennifer
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tax Treatment of Employer Educational Assistance for the Benefit of Employees

Description: Educational assistance offered by employers to their employees may be exempt from federal income tax under Section 127 and Section 132 of the Internal Revenue Code. Section 127 is the employer educational assistance exclusion; Section 132, the fringe benefit exclusion for working condition benefits (e.g., job-related eduction) among other benefits. Congress established the two tax provisions well before it enacted to her higher education tax benefits meant to assist taxpayers, their spouses, and dependents -- regardless of employment status -- pay current educational expenses incurred while obtaining postsecondary degrees and undertaking lifelong learning.
Date: July 3, 2008
Creator: Levine, Linda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tax Issues Relating to Charitable Contributions and Organizations

Description: This report focuses on deductions for charitable contributions, and on institutions that are generally eligible for deductible charitable contributions, such as social welfare organizations, educational institutions, nonprofit hospitals, and churches, along with conduits to those institutions such as private foundations, donor-advised funds, and supporting organizations.
Date: August 5, 2008
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tax Expenditures and the Federal Budget

Description: This report discusses tax expenditures, the federal budget and the reform of the federal tax system and provides tax expenditure analysis. The perception that the federal tax system is too complex and unfair could lead to public support for tax reform. Past efforts to reform the federal tax system have included policies to rein in the use and expense of tax expenditures--the special deductions, exclusions, exemptions, and credits resulting in revenue losses.
Date: August 19, 2008
Creator: Hungerford, Thomas L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Disaster Tax Relief for the Midwest

Description: The Midwestern Disaster Tax Relief Act of 2008 is intended to assist with the recovery from the severe weather that affected the Midwest during the summer of 2008. The Jobs, Energy, Families, and Disaster Relief Act of 2008 includes some similar provisions, but these are not limited to the Midwest disaster. The disaster relief in the three bills is similar to that provided to assist with the recovery from the 2005 hurricanes and the 2007 Kansas tornadoes. This report broadly discusses the disaster relief provisions in other relevant legislation.
Date: August 20, 2008
Creator: Lunder, Erika
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Foreign Tax Credit's Interest Allocation Rules

Description: This report discusses the foreign tax credit's interest allocation rules, which alleviate the double-taxation that would result if U.S. investors' overseas income were to be taxed by both the United States and a foreign country.
Date: August 20, 2008
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G. & Marples, Donald J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Introduction to the Design of the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit

Description: This report discusses the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC), which is a federal provision that reduces the income tax liability of taxpayers claiming the credit. These taxpayers are typically investors in real estate development projects that have traded cash for the tax credits to support the production of affordable housing. The credit is intended to lower the financing costs of housing developments so that the rental prices of units can be lower than market rates, and thus, presumably, affordable.
Date: August 22, 2008
Creator: Keightley, Mark P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tax Gap: Proposals in the 110th Congress to Require Brokers to Report Basis on Publicly Traded Securities

Description: Recent and projected large deficits and the need for revenue to offset spending or tax reduction proposals generated congressional and executive branch interest in different proposals to reduce the tax gap; and consequently, raise additional revenue. Proposals in the 110th Congress to require brokers to report adjusted basis on publicly traded securities sold by individuals are examined in this report.
Date: October 8, 2008
Creator: Bickley, James M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Taxation of Unemployment Benefits

Description: Unemployment compensation (UC) benefits have been fully subject to the federal income tax since the passage of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (P.L. 99-514). Individuals who receive UC benefits during a year may elect to have the federal (and in some cases state) income tax withheld from their benefits. H.R. 6844 would provide a two-year suspension of the taxation of UC benefits. This report provides an overview of the taxation of UC benefits and legislation related to taxing UC benefits.
Date: October 14, 2008
Creator: Whittaker, Julie M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Introduction to the Design of the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit

Description: This report discusses the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC), which is a federal provision that reduces the income tax liability of taxpayers claiming the credit. These taxpayers are typically investors in real estate development projects that have traded cash for the tax credits to support the production of affordable housing. The credit is intended to lower the financing costs of housing developments so that the rental prices of units can be lower than market rates, and thus, presumably, affordable.
Date: October 15, 2008
Creator: Keightley, Mark P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Farm Promotion ("Check-off") Programs

Description: The U.S. Supreme Court in 2005 affirmed the constitutionality of the so-called beef check-off program, one of the 18 generic promotion programs for agricultural products that are now active nationally. Supporters view check-offs as economically beneficial self-help activities that need minimal government involvement or taxpayer funding. Producers, handlers, and/or importers are required to pay an assessment, usually deducted from revenue at time of sale - thus the name check-off. However, some farmers contend they are being "taxed" for advertising and related activities they would not underwrite voluntarily. The Supreme Court's decision to uphold the beef check-off is considered significant for the future of the other programs, although the Court left open the possibility of additional challenges.
Date: October 20, 2008
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Tax Exclusion for Employer-Provided Health Insurance: Policy Issues Regarding the Repeal Debate

Description: Employer-provided health insurance is excluded from the determination of employees' federal income taxes, resulting in significant tax savings for many workers. The federal income tax exclusion -- the focus of this report -- is criticized for several reasons. These arguments about the exclusion merit careful consideration as Congress is starting to debate broad health care reform for the first time in 15 years. This report discusses this issue at length, including advantages and disadvantages to keeping the income tax inclusion as Congress undergoes the health policy reform process.
Date: November 21, 2008
Creator: Lyke, Bob
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Foreign Tax Credit's Interest Allocation Rules

Description: This report discusses the "worldwide" allocation of interest rule, which was a provision of the American Jobs Creation Act of 2004 (P.L. 108-357; the Jobs Act). The provision relates to the taxation of multi-national corporations and allows more generous rules for multinationals to use in allocating interest expense for purposes of the U.S. foreign tax credit.
Date: January 28, 2009
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G. & Marples, Donald J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Using Business Tax Cuts to Stimulate the Economy

Description: This report discusses issues associated with the use of business tax subsidies. First, is fiscal policy appropriate? Second, how successful are subsidies likely to be and what form might they take to be most effective? Finally, what other consequences might flow from the use of business tax subsidies, especially if they are to be permanent?
Date: January 29, 2009
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The First-Time Homebuyer Tax Credit: An Economic Analysis

Description: This report analyzes the ability of the first-time homebuyer tax credit to stimulate home buying and stabilize home prices. It includes information about current economic conditions, the tax credit with an economic analysis, marginal first-time home buyers, the cost of home ownership, the influence of the economy, and information about policy options and specific ways to adjust the tax credit.
Date: February 19, 2009
Creator: Keightley, Mark P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department