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A Value-Added Tax Contrasted with a National Sales Tax

Description: Proposals to replace all or part of the income tax, proposals for national health care, and a proposal to finance America’s war effort have sparked congressional interest in the possibility of a broad-based consumption tax as a new source of revenue. A value-added tax (VAT) or a national sales tax (NST) have been frequently discussed as possible new tax sources. Both the VAT and the NST are taxes on the consumption of goods and services and are conceptually similar. Yet, these taxes also have significant differences. This issue brief discusses some of the potential policy implications associated with these differences.
Date: March 19, 2003
Creator: Bickley, James M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effect of the President’s Dividend Relief Proposal on Corporate Tax Subsidies

Description: The first section of this report explains how these excludable dividend amounts (EDAs) work and how they affect the value of corporate tax preferences. The second section of the report details alternative approaches and their effects on corporate tax subsidies. The next section of the report explores the rationale for EDAs. The final section concludes with a review of general policy issues, including a discussion of the general types of corporate tax preferences currently allowed and a discussion of possible alternative approaches.
Date: March 13, 2003
Creator: Esenwein, Gregg A. & Gravelle, Jane G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estate Tax Legislation in the 108th Congress

Description: Under provisions of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (EGTRRA, P.L. 107-16, enacted June 7, 2001), the estate tax is scheduled to be repealed in 2010 but reinstated in 2011. All tax cut provisions of EGTRRA are scheduled to sunset on December 31, 2010. This report tracks actions in the 108th Congress to permanently repeal the estate tax or to retain but alter the tax.
Date: March 11, 2003
Creator: Noto, Nonna A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic Analysis of the Charitable Contribution Deduction for Non-Itemizers

Description: This report summarizes the provisions affecting charitable contribution deductions of individuals, and then analyzes the incentive such a deduction would create for increased charitable giving beginning with the original proposal for a relatively low cap and then considering other approaches including the current one. It does not attempt to estimate other types of societal impacts. The non-itemizer’s charitable deduction was the single most important tax provision in the original version of H.R. 7. In S. 1924, S. 476, and the current version of H.R. 7, the nonitemizer provision was temporary and had a higher cap (and a floor). The provision affecting rollovers from IRAs, which can also function as a deduction for nonitemizers, is also discussed briefly.
Date: February 28, 2003
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fact Sheet on Congressional Tax Proposals in the 108th Congress

Description: After passing a major multi-year tax cut in Mid-2001 (which was sunsetted after ten years) and a stimulus bill in 2002, Congress is considering energy tax subsidies, tax incentives for charitable giving deductions, pension diversification in the wake of the ENRON problems, and tax shelters. The House has passed several bills that would make the multiyear tax cut permanent as well as a bill to speed up certain provisions.
Date: February 28, 2003
Creator: Richards, Don C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Tax Policy

Description: Omnibus energy legislation (H.R. 4) that is now in conference would expand energy tax incentives significantly. The House passed the bill on August 2, 2001, and the Senate approved its version April 25, 2002. Several energy tax issues are addressed in these bills: 1) tax incentives to increase the supply of oil and gas, and the demand for coal; 2) energy tax issues relating to energy conservation and energy efficiency; 3) energy tax issues relating to alternative fuels; 4) selected issues relating to electricity restructuring; and 5) expiring energy tax provisions.
Date: February 21, 2003
Creator: Lazzari, Salvatore
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estate and Gift Taxes: Economic Issues

Description: This report discusses how the estate and gift tax works and examines various policy options. The Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (EGTRRA, P.L. 107-16) repeals the estate tax after 2009. In the 108th Congress, some policymakers have proposed eliminating the sunset provision in the EGTRRA, thus making repeal of the estate tax permanent.
Date: January 31, 2003
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G. & Maguire, Steven
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Alternative Minimum Tax for Individuals

Description: This report provides a brief overview of the alternative minimum tax (AMT) for individuals, discusses the issues associated with the current system, and describes current legislation to amend the AMT. The report will be updated as legislative action warrants.
Date: January 30, 2003
Creator: Esenwein, Gregg A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Export Tax Benefits and the WTO: Foreign Sales Corporations and the Extraterritorial Replacement Provisions

Description: The U.S. tax code’s Foreign Sales Corporation (FSC) provisions provided a tax benefit for U.S. exporters. However, the European Union (EU) in 1997 charged that the provision was an export subsidy and thus contravened the World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements. A WTO ruling upheld the EU complaint, and to avoid WTO sanctioned retaliatory tariffs, U.S. legislation in November 2000 replaced FSC with the “extraterritorial income” (ETI) provisions, consisting of a redesigned export tax benefit of the same magnitude as FSC. The EU maintained that the new provisions are also not WTO-compliant and asked the WTO to rule on the matter.
Date: January 30, 2003
Creator: Brumbaugh, David L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic and Revenue Effects of Permanent and Temporary Capital Gains Tax Cuts

Description: Recent proposals have been made to enact either a temporary or a permanent capital gains tax cut. The former would probably gain revenue in the first 2 years but lose that revenue and more, most likely within the following 3 years. H.R. 3090, passed by the House, would lower the top tax rate from 20% to 18% for assets held at least a year. The Senate Finance Committee version of H.R. 3090, does not reduce capital gains taxes. A capital gains tax cut appears the least likely of any permanent tax cut to stimulate the economy in the short run; a temporary capital gains tax cut is unlikely to provide any stimulus. Permanently lower capital gains taxes can contribute to economic efficiency in some ways and detract from it in others. Capital gains tax cuts would favor high income individuals, with about 80% of the benefit going to the top 2% of taxpayers.
Date: January 29, 2003
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic Issues Surrounding the Estate and Gift Tax: A Brief Summary

Description: Supporters of the estate and gift tax argue that it provides progressivity in the federal tax system, provides a backstop to the individual income tax and appropriately targets assets that are bestowed on heirs rather than assets earned through their hard work and effort. However, progressivity can be obtained through the income tax and the estate and gift tax is an imperfect backstop to the income tax. Critics argue that the tax discourages savings, harms small businesses and farms, taxes resources already subject to income taxes, and adds to the complexity of the tax system.
Date: January 29, 2003
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department