Congressional Research Service Reports - 718 Matching Results

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Business Investment and Employment Tax Incentives to Stimulate the Economy

Description: This report discusses the merit of various business tax incentives and their effectiveness in providing fiscal stimulus during the recession. The two most common measures to provide business tax incentives for new investment are investment tax credits and accelerated deductions for depreciation.
Date: January 22, 2010
Creator: Hungerford, Thomas L. & Gravelle, Jane G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Business Tax Issues in 2009

Description: This report discusses the tax climate for businesses, while economic stimulus proposals dominate the congressional debate. During 2009, it is anticipated that congressional deliberations will once again turn towards the extension of several expiring business tax provisions, energy taxation, tax shelters, and international taxation, while continuing to examine opportunities to stimulate the economy.
Date: April 8, 2009
Creator: Marples, Donald J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Business Tax Provisions That Expired in 2016 ("Tax Extenders")

Description: This report briefly summarizes and discusses the economic impact of selected business-related tax provisions that expired at the end of 2016. Types of business provisions covered are special business investment (cost recovery), economic development, and other miscellaneous business-related matters.
Date: August 28, 2017
Creator: Sherlock, Molly F.; Marples, Donald J.; Lowry, Sean & Gravelle, Jane G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calculating Estate Tax Liability: 2001 to 2011 and Beyond

Description: This report provides a basic explanation of how to calculate the federal estate tax liability for a taxable estate of any given size, using the schedule of graduated marginal tax rates and the applicable exclusion amount or the applicable credit amount for the year of death. The “applicable exclusion amount” is the amount of any decedent’s taxable estate that is free from tax. It is known informally as the estate tax “exemption.” The “applicable credit amount” or “unified credit” is the corresponding tax credit. It is equal to the tax that would be due on a taxable estate that is the size of the applicable exclusion amount.
Date: May 7, 2008
Creator: Noto, Nonna A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calculating Estate Tax Liability: 2001 to 2011 and Beyond

Description: This report provides a basic explanation of how to calculate the federal estate tax liability for a taxable estate of any given size, using the schedule of graduated marginal tax rates and the applicable exclusion amount or the applicable credit amount for the year of death. The “applicable exclusion amount” is the amount of any decedent’s taxable estate that is free from tax. It is known informally as the estate tax “exemption.” The “applicable credit amount” or “unified credit” is the corresponding tax credit. It is equal to the tax that would be due on a taxable estate that is the size of the applicable exclusion amount.
Date: November 3, 2006
Creator: Noto, Nonna A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Capital Gains Taxes: An Overview

Description: The capital gains tax has been a tax cut target since the 1986 Tax Reform Act treated capital gains as ordinary income. An argument for lower capital gains taxes is reduction of the lock-in effect. Some also believe that lower capital gains taxes will cost little compared to the benefits they bring and that lower taxes induce additional economic growth, although the magnitude of these potential effects is in some dispute. Others criticize lower capital gains taxes as benefitting higher income individuals and express concerns about the budget effects, particularly in future years. Another criticism of lower rates is the possible role of a larger capital gains tax differential in encouraging tax sheltering activities and adding complexity to the tax law.
Date: August 30, 1999
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Challenge of Individual Income Tax Reform: An Economic Analysis of Tax Base Broadening

Description: Congressional interest in a major reform of the individual income tax that would broaden the base and use the additional tax revenues to lower rates and/or reduce the deficit has increased. This report discusses ways in which the tax base can be broadened, tax expenditures, and impediments to broadening the base/eliminating or reducing expenditures.
Date: March 22, 2012
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G. & Hungerford, Thomas L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characteristics of and Reporting Requirements for Selected Tax-Exempt Organizations

Description: This report addresses in summary fashion the differences among several kinds of tax-exempt organizations described in Internal Revenue Code [IRC] subsections 501(c)(3), 501(c)(4), 501(c)(5), 501(c)(6), and section 527. Each of these types of organization has a unique statutory definition, is subject to certain statutory limitations on its activities, enjoys certain benefits from obtaining tax-exempt status, and must share certain information with the general public. Following the report is a table which summarizes this information.
Date: March 8, 2001
Creator: Morris, Marie B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Charitable Choice, Faith-Based Initiatives, and TANF

Description: The Senate Finance Committee version of H.R. 7, approved on July 16, 2002, does not contain the “charitable choice” title of the House-passed H.R. 7; nor does it include a compromise “faith-based” provision (from S. 1924 as introduced) that sought to assure equal treatment for nongovernmental providers of almost all federally-funded social services. Remaining in the Senate Finance bill are tax incentives to promote private giving. The Charitable Choice Act of 2001 (Title II of the House bill) would apply its rules, which are significantly different from those in four existing charitable choice laws, to nine new program areas.
Date: August 21, 2002
Creator: Burke, Vee
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Charitable Choice, Faith-Based Initiatives, and TANF

Description: The 107th Congress did not pass tax incentives for private giving or legislation intended to assure equal treatment of religious organizations as providers of social services (provisions in S. 1924, the original CARE bill). The House voted to extend charitable choice rules to numerous new programs (H.R. 7), as the President urged, but the Senate refused. However, in an Executive Order, President Bush on December 12, 2002, directed six cabinet-level departments and the Agency for International Development (AID) to bring policies concerning social service programs into line with charitable choice principles set forth in the Order.
Date: January 3, 2003
Creator: Burke, Vee
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Charitable Choice, Faith-Based Initiatives, and TANF

Description: The 108th Congress has resumed efforts to pass tax incentives for private giving (S. 476, passed by the Senate on April 9, and H.R. 7, introduced May 7, 2003). However, these bills do not contain provisions intended to promote religious organizations as providers of federally funded social services – charitable choice provisions.. The House voted in 2001 to extend charitable choice rules, which now apply to a limited set of programs, to numerous new programs (H.R. 7 in the 107th Congress), as the President urged, but the Senate refused. However, in an Executive Order, President Bush on December 12, 2002, directed six cabinet-level departments and the Agency for International Development (AID) to bring policies concerning social service programs into line with charitable choice principles set forth in the Order.
Date: May 9, 2003
Creator: Burke, Vee
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Charitable Choice, Faith-Based Initiatives, and TANF

Description: The 108th Congress has resumed efforts to pass tax incentives for private giving (S. 476, passed by the Senate on April 9, and H.R. 7, introduced May 7, 2003). However, these bills do not contain provisions intended to promote religious organizations as providers of federally funded social services – charitable choice provisions.. The House voted in 2001 to extend charitable choice rules, which now apply to a limited set of programs, to numerous new programs (H.R. 7 in the 107th Congress), as the President urged, but the Senate refused. However, in an Executive Order, President Bush on December 12, 2002, directed six cabinet-level departments and the Agency for International Development (AID) to bring policies concerning social service programs into line with charitable choice principles set forth in the Order.
Date: September 30, 2003
Creator: Burke, Vee
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Charitable Choice Provisions of H.R. 7

Description: H.R. 7, the Community Solutions Act, on July 19 won House passage without amendment by a vote of 233-198. The bill includes basic elements of President Bush’s faith-based initiatives: tax incentives for private giving–scaled back from original proposals (Title I)–and expansion of charitable choice (Title II). (Title III deals with individual development accounts.)
Date: July 21, 2001
Creator: Burke, Vee
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Charitable Contributions of Food Inventory: Proposals for Change

Description: Early in the 109th Congress, both S. 6, the Family and Community Protection Act of 2005, and S. 94, the Good Samaritan Hunger Relief Tax Incentive Act, have been introduced to encourage gifts of food by businesses for charitable purposes. While current law provides a deduction only to C corporations, these bills would expand the tax break to all business entities. The value of the existing deduction is the corporation’s basis in the donated product plus one half of the amount of appreciation, as long as that amount is less than twice the corporation’s basis in the product.
Date: January 31, 2005
Creator: Talley, Louis Alan & Jackson, Pamela J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Child and Dependent Care Tax Benefits: How They Work and Who Receives Them

Description: This report provides a general overview of the child and dependent care tax benefits, focusing on eligibility requirements and benefit calculation. The report also includes some summary data on these benefits which highlight some of the characteristics of claimants.
Date: October 26, 2017
Creator: Crandall-Hollick, Margot L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Child Tax Credit and the President's Tax Cut Plan

Description: The child tax credit was enacted as part of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997. The current credit is $500 per qualifying child. President Bush has proposed increasing the child tax credit to $1,000 per qualifying child. The President has also proposed making permanent the temporary rule in current law that allows the child tax credit to offset a taxpayer’s alternative minimum tax.
Date: March 30, 2001
Creator: Esenwein, Gregg A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department