Congressional Research Service Reports - Browse

ABOUT BROWSE FEED

A History of Federal Estate, Gift, and Generation-Skipping Taxes

Description: Three primary categories of legislation pertaining to transfer taxes have been introduced in the 110th Congress. As noted above, the repeal of the estate and generation-skipping taxes is not permanent. One category would make the repeal permanent. (See, H.R. 411 and H.R. 2380). Another category would accelerate the repeal of these transfer taxes. (See, H.R. 25, H.R. 1040, H.R. 1586, H.R. 4042, S. 1025, S. 1040, and S. 1081). The third would reinstate these taxes at lower rates and/or in a manner more considerate of family-owned business. (See, H.R. 1928, H.R. 3170, H.R. 3475, H.R. 4172, H.R. 4235, H.R. 4242, and S. 1994). In this report, the history of the federal transfer taxes has been divided into four parts: (1) the federal death and gift taxes used between 1789 and 1915; (2) the development, from 1916 through 1975, of the modern estate and gift taxes; (3) the creation and refinement of a unified estate and gift tax system, supplemented by a generation-skipping transfer tax; and (4) the phaseout and repeal of the estate and generation-skipping taxes, with the gift tax being retained as a device to protect the integrity of the income tax.
Date: January 3, 2008
Creator: Luckey, John R.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estate and Gift Taxes for Nonresident Aliens

Description: This report explains the major provisions of the federal estate and gift transfer taxes for transfers by nonresident aliens in 2014. This discussion highlights the different tax rules for estates of nonresident aliens as compared to the estates of U.S. citizens and resident aliens.
Date: June 2, 2014
Creator: Lanza, Emily M.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Analysis of the Geographic Distribution of the Mortgage Interest Deduction

Description: This report analyzes variation in the mortgage interest deduction tax expenditure across states. Tax expenditures, such as the mortgage interest deduction, can generally be viewed as government spending administered via the tax code, or as tax incentives that are intended to achieve particular policy objectives. Regardless of the interpretation, tax expenditures provide a benefit to qualifying taxpayers by lowering their federal tax liabilities.
Date: January 30, 2014
Creator: Keightley, Mark P.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Bush Tax Cuts and the Economy

Description: The George W. Bush Administration enacted a series of tax cuts through the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 and the Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2003. This report examines these tax cuts within the context of the current and long-term economic environment.
Date: December 10, 2010
Creator: Hungerford, Thomas L.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tax Deductible Expenses: The BP Case

Description: Following the release of BP's second quarter earning statement, which showed a $10 billion reduction in tax liability for oil-spill-related cleanup and expenses, media headlines have generated public concern, and in some cases outrage, over these tax savings. Further, the ability of BP to realize these tax savings has generated a number of inquiries as to how and why BP is entitled to this reduction in tax liability. This report discusses the nature of BP's $10 billion "credit" and the nature of corporate tax deductions.
Date: August 11, 2010
Creator: Sherlock, Molly F.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Early Withdrawals and Required Minimum Distributions in Retirement Accounts: Issues for Congress

Description: In response to the economic downturn, Congress considered providing relief to Americans by suspending two tax penalties on defined contribution retirement plans and Individual Retirement Accounts (IRAs). This report discusses the reasons offered in support of suspending these provisions, as well as the drawbacks. This report also presents data that estimates the number of households that these proposals would impact. Borrowing from retirement plans as an alternative to withdrawals is also discussed. Finally, the report discusses the kinds of proposals offered to either suspend or eliminate the early withdrawal penalty or the required minimum distribution provision.
Date: January 7, 2011
Creator: Topoleski, John J.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Overview of the Tax Provisions in the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012

Description: This report provides an overview of the tax provisions (Titles I-IV and Title X of P.L. 112-240) included in the "fiscal cliff deal," including the permanent extension and modification of the 2001 and 2003 tax cuts, often referred to collectively as the "Bush-era tax cuts"; the temporary extension of certain tax provisions originally included as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA; P.L. 111-5), often referred to as the "2009 tax cuts"; the permanent extension of the alternative minimum tax (AMT) patch; the temporary extension of a variety of other temporary expiring provisions for individuals, businesses, and energy often referred to as "tax extenders" and the expansion of in-plan conversions of traditional employer-sponsored retirement accounts (like 401(k) plans) to employer-sponsored Roth accounts (like Roth 401(k) plans).
Date: January 10, 2013
Creator: Crandall-Hollick, Margot L.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Corporate Expatriation, Inversions, and Mergers: Tax Issues

Description: This report begins with a brief discussion of relevant portions of the U.S. corporate income tax system before examining how inversions were commonly structured. The report then looks at how Congress and Department of the Treasury have reduced the benefits of inversions. The report concludes with an examination of methods that remain to invert and policy options available to prevent or limit these inversions.
Date: September 3, 2014
Creator: Marples, Donald J. & Gravelle, Jane G.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The OECD Initiative on Tax Havens

Description: This report examines the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and its role in changes to U.S. laws related to bribery, tax havens.
Date: July 29, 2010
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Taxation of Hedge Fund and Private Equity Managers

Description: This report discusses the major issues surrounding the tax treatment of hedge fund and private equity managers and will be updated as legislative developments warrant.
Date: March 7, 2014
Creator: Marples, Donald J.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Distribution of the Tax Burden Across Individuals: An Overview

Description: This report discusses in the first section different philosophies about how the tax burden should be distributed, and what those philosophies imply for the shape of the tax system. In particular, it addresses the question of the justifications for a progressive tax system (one where the share of income collected as a tax rises as income rises). This section is presented for the interested reader, but is not a necessary preliminary to examining the analysis in the second section, which presents estimates of the distribution of the federal and total U.S. tax burden. The third section of the report discusses the measures that can be used to characterize the distributional effects of tax changes.
Date: December 13, 2004
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G. & Shvedov, Maxim
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The American Opportunity Tax Credit: Overview, Analysis, and Policy Options

Description: This report provides both an in-depth description of this tax credit and an analysis of its economic impact. This report is organized to first provide an overview of the American Opportunity Tax Credit (AOTC), followed by a legislative history that highlights the evolution of education tax credits from proposals in the 1960s through the recent extension of the AOTC at the end of 2012. This report then analyzes the credit by looking at who claims the credit, the effect education tax credits have on increasing college attendance, and administrative issues with the AOTC. Finally, this report concludes with a brief overview of various policy options, including tax law changes proposed in Chairman Camp's tax reform bill3 and in the President's FY2015 budget request.
Date: July 10, 2014
Creator: Crandall-Hollick, Margot L.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The OECD Initiative on Tax Havens

Description: This report examines the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and its role in changes to U.S. laws related to bribery, tax havens.
Date: July 24, 2009
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conservation Reserve Program Payments: Self-Employment Income, Rental Income, or Something Else?

Description: This report outlines the history of the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), the changing positions of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), pertinent case law, and other provisions of the Internal Revenue Code (IRC). Several possible approaches to the taxation of CRP payments are discussed.
Date: April 14, 2008
Creator: Pettit, Carol A.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The OECD Initiative on Tax Havens

Description: This report examines the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and its role in changes to U.S. laws related to bribery, tax havens.
Date: March 11, 2010
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Addressing the Long-Run Budget Deficit: A Comparison of Approaches

Description: The growth of the national debt, which is considered unsustainable under current policies, continues to be one of the central issues of domestic federal policy making. On August 2, 2011, Congress adopted, and the President signed, the Budget Control Act (BCA; P.L. 112-25), which might be viewed as an initial step in addressing long-run debt issues. This report examines alternative approaches to reducing the deficit, relating to the immediate issues arising from the BCA and the extended tax cuts as well as to ongoing, longer-term decisions about how to bring the debt under control. It focuses on the trade-offs between limiting the provision of defense and domestic public goods, reducing transfers to persons including entitlements for the elderly and those with low income, reducing support for state and local governments, and raising taxes. Using projections of the debt and deficit, it also addresses how limiting reliance on one source of deficit reduction creates pressure on other sources.
Date: December 9, 2014
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The American Opportunity Tax Credit: Overview, Analysis, and Policy Options

Description: This report gives an overview of the American Opportunity Tax Credit (AOTC)—enacted on a temporary basis by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act and extended through the end of 2012 by the Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010— which is a partially-refundable tax credit that provides financial assistance to taxpayers who are attending college, or whose children are attending college. There are a variety of policy options mentioned in the report regarding the AOTC, including extending the credit, extending a modified AOTC, or repealing the Hope and Lifetime Credits and extending a modified AOTC that includes provisions included in these credits.
Date: June 11, 2012
Creator: Crandall-Hollick, Margot L.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Constitutionality of Retroactive Tax Legislation

Description: Report that examines the constitutional provisions that might be implicated by retroactive tax legislation, including legislation that seems intended to punish past behavior.
Date: October 25, 2012
Creator: Lunder, Erika K.; Meltz, Robert & Thomas, Kenneth R.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Taxation of Aliens Working in the United States

Description: This report outlines issues regarding the taxation of aliens since several pieces of current legislation have been introduced that would impose restrictions for claiming child tax credits or for claiming credits and refunds. The report includes an overview of immigration status, resident or nonresident aliens, taxation of income for various classifications, and Social Security and medicare taxes.
Date: May 18, 2012
Creator: Lunder, Erika K.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Higher Education Tax Benefits: Brief Overview and Budgetary Effects

Description: This report provides a brief overview of the higher education tax benefits that are currently available to students and their families. The report contrasts higher education tax benefits with traditional student aid, presents a brief history of higher education tax policy over the past 60 years, summarizes key features of the available tax benefits, and provides JCT estimates of revenue losses resulting from individual tax provisions.
Date: July 10, 2012
Creator: Crandall-Hollick, Margot L.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department