Congressional Research Service Reports - 467 Matching Results

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The 2003 Tax Cut: Proposals and Issues

Description: This report provides a brief description of each tax cut proposal, including major proposals offered by the Democrats in both the House and the Senate during 2003. It discusses the distributional affects of the proposals and potential effects on short and long term economic growth.
Date: July 16, 2004
Creator: Brumbaugh, David L. & Richards, Don C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Major Tax Issues in the 108th Congress

Description: This report provides an overview of major tax issues. It begins by describing three aspects of the economic context in which the tax policy debate during 2004 is likely to occur: the general state of the U.S. economy; the position of the federal budget; and the level of taxes in the United States.
Date: December 2, 2004
Creator: Brumbaugh, David L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Brownfields Tax Incentive Extension

Description: This report discusses the brownfields tax incentive, which expires on December 31, 2007. Enacted in 1997, the provision allowed a taxpayer to fully deduct the costs of environmental cleanup in the year the costs were incurred, rather than spreading the costs over a period of years.
Date: January 19, 2007
Creator: Reisch, Mark
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Retirement Savings Tax Credit: A Fact Sheet

Description: This report discusses the saver's tax credit, under which eligible individuals receive a non-refundable tax credit of up to $1,000 for contributing to a traditional IRA or an employer-sponsored retirement plan that is qualified under §401, §403 or §457 of the Internal Revenue Code. The credit was first available in 2002 but will expire after 2006 unless extended by Congress.
Date: April 1, 2004
Creator: Purcell, Patrick
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Revenue Legislation in the Congressional Budget Process

Description: This report discusses revenue legislation, which may include changes to individual and corporate income taxes, social insurance taxes, excise taxes, or tariffs and duties. Congressional consideration of revenue legislation is governed by various constitutional provisions and procedural rules.
Date: June 13, 2003
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Retirement Savings and Household Wealth in 2000: Analysis of Census Bureau Data

Description: This report examines recent trends in retirement saving and the policy implications. The aging of the American population and the impending retirement of the "baby boom" will place significant strains over the next several decades on both Social Security and on retirees' own financial resources. With continued increases in average life expectancies, retirees in the 21st century will have to stretch their savings and other assets over longer periods of retirement than were experienced by their parents and grandparents.
Date: December 12, 2002
Creator: Purcell, Patrick J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Tax Policy

Description: This report discusses the history, current posture, and outlook for federal energy tax policy. It also discusses recent energy tax proposals, focusing on the major energy tax provisions that were debated as part of omnibus energy legislation in the 108th Congress (e.g., H.R. 6), which may be reintroduced in the 109th Congress.
Date: April 22, 2005
Creator: Lazzari, Salvatore
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estate and Gift Taxes: Economic Issues

Description: This report discusses how the estate and gift tax works and examines various policy options. The Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (EGTRRA, P.L. 107-16) repeals the estate tax after 2009. In the 108th Congress, some policymakers have proposed eliminating the sunset provision in the EGTRRA, thus making repeal of the estate tax permanent.
Date: January 31, 2003
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G. & Maguire, Steven
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Small Business Tax Relief: Proposals in the 108th Congress and Their Economic Justification

Description: This report examines the economic arguments for and against small business tax subsidies in the context of current congressional proposals to expand them. It begins with a brief description of current federal tax subsidies for small firms, moves on to consider the principal economic arguments for and against these subsidies, and concludes with a discussion of proposals in the 108th Congress to expand small business tax subsidies and their likely economic effects.
Date: May 9, 2003
Creator: Guenther, Gary
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tax Benefits for Health Insurance: Current Legislation

Description: This report discusses a variety of potential proposals to change the tax benefits for health insurance and medical expenses, including measures that would expand the availability and attractiveness of health savings accounts (HSAs), or employer tax credits.
Date: February 6, 2006
Creator: Lyke, Bob
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estate and Gift Taxes: Economic Issues

Description: The unified estate and gift tax is levied on the transfer of assets that occurs when someone dies or gives a gift. Filing an estate tax return can be difficult depending on the value and complexity of the estate. The purpose here is to outline the mechanics of the estate and gift tax. The first section begins with a brief review of the general rules accompanied with a numerical example. There are some minor provisions of the law that are not discussed here, however, such as the phase out of the graduated rates and the credit for taxes on property recently transferred. The second section summarizes the special rules for farms and small businesses. And, the final section briefly describes the generation skipping transfer tax. The appendix of this report provides detailed data from returns filed in 2005, the latest year for which data are available.
Date: March 19, 2008
Creator: Marples, Donald J. & Gravelle, Jane G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Excise Taxes on Tobacco Products: Rates and Revenues

Description: This report examines increases in excise tax rates on tobacco products contained in the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (P.L. 105-33). Under that act, the increased rates on tobacco products became effective in two stages. The first scheduled increase in rates occurred on January 1, 2000, while the second increase in rates occurred two years later on January 1, 2002
Date: April 28, 2005
Creator: Talley, Louis Alan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Introduction to the Design of the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit

Description: This report discusses the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC), which is a federal provision that reduces the income tax liability of taxpayers claiming the credit. These taxpayers are typically investors in real estate development projects that have traded cash for the tax credits to support the production of affordable housing. The credit is intended to lower the financing costs of housing developments so that the rental prices of units can be lower than market rates, and thus, presumably, affordable.
Date: December 15, 2009
Creator: Keightley, Mark P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Taxation of Unemployment Benefits

Description: Unemployment compensation (UC) benefits have been fully subject to the federal income tax since the passage of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (P.L. 99-514). Individuals who receive UC benefits during a year may elect to have the federal (and in some cases state) income tax withheld from their benefits. H.R. 6844 would provide a two-year suspension of the taxation of UC benefits. This report provides an overview of the taxation of UC benefits and legislation related to taxing UC benefits.
Date: October 14, 2008
Creator: Whittaker, Julie M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Taxes and Offshore Outsourcing

Description: This report discusses the impact of taxes on international trade and investment has been debated for decades. Most recently, a variety of bills addressing international taxation have been introduced in the 110th Congress—some would cut taxes for U.S. firms overseas, while others would increase taxes on foreign investment. The debate over taxes and foreign outsourcing has tended to grow more heated during times of domestic economic weakness and high unemployment; questions arise over whether taxes contribute to such weakness by discouraging exports (or encouraging imports) or by encouraging U.S. firms to move abroad. The debate over international taxation has again become prominent as a part of the wider debate over “outsourcing.” With taxes, the debate asks how the current system affects outsourcing, and whether policies designed to limit the phenomenon might be desirable.
Date: March 11, 2008
Creator: Marples, Donald J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Passthrough Organizations Not Taxed As Corporations

Description: This report describes the various forms of tax conduit organizations found in the Internal Revenue Code (IRC), or the Internal Revenue Services (IRS) regulations and discusses how the form of organization affects the tax situation of the owners. It is organized according to the major types of conduit organization.
Date: August 20, 2002
Creator: Taylor, Jack H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Estate, Gift, and Generation-Skipping Taxes: A Description of Current Law

Description: This report contains an explanation of the major provisions of the federal estate, gift, and generation-skipping transfer taxes. The discussion divides the federal estate tax into three components: the gross estate, deductions from the gross estate, and computation of the tax, including allowable tax credits. The federal estate tax is computed through a series of adjustments and modifications of a tax base known as the "gross estate." Certain allowable deductions reduce the gross estate to the "taxable estate," to which is then added the total of all lifetime taxable gifts made by the decedent. The tax rates are applied and, after reduction for certain allowable credits, the amount of tax owed by the estate is reached.
Date: January 19, 2007
Creator: Luckey, John R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tax Credits for Individual Development Accounts

Description: An individual development account (IDA) is a structured savings instrument for lower income individuals. This report discusses legislation introduced in the 108th Congress to establish IDA programs utilizing tax benefits to encourage program development.
Date: February 8, 2006
Creator: Scott, Christine
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Taxation of Unemployment Benefits

Description: Unemployment compensation (UC) benefits have been fully subject to the federal income tax since the passage of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (P.L. 99-514). Individuals who receive UC benefits during a year may elect to have the federal (and in some cases state) income tax withheld from their benefits. Legislation was introduced in the 108th Congress that would have repealed the taxation of UC benefits, provided a two-year suspension of the taxation of UC benefits, or transferred the proceeds from taxing UC benefits to the Unemployment Trust Fund. This report provides an overview of the taxation of UC benefits and legislation related to taxing UC benefits.
Date: January 14, 2005
Creator: Scott, Christine
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tax Returns of Individuals: Statistical Charts for the Five Most Recent Years

Description: This report provides answers to some of the most frequently asked questions concerning the federal individual income tax, including the number of returns filed, average tax per return, and income tax as percentage of adjusted gross income. This report will be updated as the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) releases new or revised statistics.
Date: December 12, 2002
Creator: Solomon, Arnold D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department