Congressional Research Service Reports - 170 Matching Results

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Dependent Care: Current Tax Benefits and Legislative Issues

Description: This report discusses current tax treatment of dependent care expenses under those two provisions and options for changing those policies. Two income tax provisions help taxpayers pay for the costs of caring for children and older dependents who cannot care for themselves.
Date: February 4, 2015
Creator: Meyerson, Noah P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estate Tax Options

Description: After a brief description of the estate and gift tax and of options, this report compares the alternatives, focusing largely on a $1 million exemption and 55% rate, a $3.5 million exemption and a 45% rate, and a $5 million exemption and a 35% rate. Several policy effects and issues are analyzed: the share of decedents subject to tax, revenue effects, distributional effects, and effects on savings, charitable contributions, and compliance and administration. The report also considers other aspects of the proposals, such as whether the exemptions are indexed for inflation, a proposed inheritance of the exemption for spouses, and proposals to address perceived abuses.
Date: April 23, 2010
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Individual Taxpayer Identification Number (ITIN) Filers and the Child Tax Credit: Overview and Legislation

Description: This report discusses the child tax credit, which was created by the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997 (P.L. 105-34) to help ease the financial burden on families when they have children. The ACTC is available to taxpayers with little or no federal income tax liability.
Date: March 22, 2016
Creator: Crandall-Hollick, Margot L. & Lunder, Erika K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Selected Recently Expired Individual Tax Provisions ("Tax Extenders"): In Brief

Description: This report briefly summarizes and discusses four items categorized as individual tax provisions that are regularly extended for one or two years (tax extenders). These items include deductions for elementary and secondary school teachers, deductions for state and local taxes, deductions for tuition and related expenses, and exclusions for employer-provided transit and parking benefits.
Date: August 20, 2015
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Excise Tax on High-Cost Employer-Sponsored Health Coverage: Background and Economic Analysis

Description: This report gives a brief description of the excise tax on high-cost employer-sponsored coverage, commonly referred to as the Cadillac tax, including the legislative origins of the tax and an analysis of the revenue effects of the tax. It also analyzes the Cadillac tax using standard economic criteria of efficiency, equity, and administrative simplicity as well as an analysis of health insurance premium data to provide insights into what share of health insurance plans could exceed the Cadillac tax threshold and how the threshold could affect more health plans over time.
Date: August 20, 2015
Creator: Lowry, Sean
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Excise Tax on High-Cost Employer-Sponsored Health Insurance: Estimated Economic and Market Effects

Description: This report examines several issues: it evaluates the potential of the Cadillac tax to affect health insurance coverage (and, therefore, the health market), and examines the expected incidence (burden) of the tax--that is, which group will pay the price of the tax.
Date: August 20, 2015
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tax Provisions that Expired in 2014 ("Tax Extenders")

Description: This report provides a broad overview of tax extenders -- a collective of temporary tax provisions for which measures have regularly extended the provisions when expired or expiring. Fifty-two temporary tax provisions expired at the end of 2014.
Date: September 4, 2015
Creator: Sherlock, Molly F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Section 179 and Bonus Depreciation Expensing Allowances: Current Law, Legislative Proposals in the 112th Congress, and Economic Effects

Description: This report examines the current status, legislative history, and economic effects of the two expensing allowances (Section 179 and Bonus Depreciation Allowance) and also discusses initiatives in the 112th Congress to modify them. Expensing is the most accelerated form of depreciation for tax purposes. Section 179 of the Internal Revenue Code (IRC) allows a taxpayer to expense up to $125,000 of the total cost of new and used qualified depreciable assets it buys and places in service in 2012, within certain limits. In addition, Section 168(k) generally allows taxpayers to expense half the cost of qualified assets bought and placed in service in 2012.
Date: August 14, 2012
Creator: Guenther, Gary
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Overview of Recent Tax Reform Proposals

Description: This report provides a review of legislative tax reform proposals introduced since the 113th Congress. Several proposals have already been introduced in the 115th Congress to replace the current income tax system.
Date: February 28, 2017
Creator: Keightley, Mark P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EU State Aid and Apple's Taxes

Description: This report discusses the recent investigations by the European Union (EU) regarding claims that certain countries had provided illegal state aid via favorable tax rulings.
Date: September 2, 2016
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Medical Device Excise Tax: Economic Analysis

Description: This report reviews the issues surrounding the medical devices tax within the framework of basic principles surrounding the choice of commodities to tax under excise taxes. The next section describes the tax and its legislative origins. After that, the report analyzes the arguments for retaining and repealing the tax.
Date: December 23, 2013
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G. & Lowry, Sean
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tax Deductions for Individuals: A Summary

Description: This report first describes what tax deductions are, how they vary in their effects on reducing taxable income, and how they differ from other provisions (e.g., exclusions or credits). Next, it discusses the rationale for deductions as part of the tax code. The final section of this report includes tables that summarize each individual tax deduction, under current law. Many of these deductions are part of the permanent income tax code.
Date: January 8, 2014
Creator: Lowry, Sean
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recently Expired Community Assistance Related Tax Provisions ("Tax Extenders"): In Brief

Description: This report briefly summarizes four community assistance-related tax provisions included in the EXPIRE Act, which are (1) the New Markets Tax Credit, (2) Empowerment Zone Tax Incentives, (3) allocation of bond limitations for Qualified Zone Academy Bonds, and (4) the American Samoa Economic Development Credit.
Date: May 22, 2014
Creator: Lowry, Sean
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tax Provisions to Assist with Disaster Recovery

Description: Report that provides a basic overview of existing, permanent provisions that benefit victims of disasters, as well as past, targeted legislative responses to particular disasters. The relief is discussed without examining either the qualifications for or the limitation on claiming the provisions' benefits.
Date: November 29, 2012
Creator: Lunder, Erika K.; Pettit, Carol A. & Teefy, Jennifer
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Taxes and the Economy: An Economic Analysis of the Top Tax Rates Since 1945

Description: This report attempts to clarify whether or not there is an association between the tax rates of the highest income taxpayers and economic growth. Data is analyzed to illustrate the association between the tax rates of the highest income taxpayers and measures of economic growth.
Date: September 14, 2012
Creator: Hungerford, Thomas L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department