Congressional Research Service Reports - 170 Matching Results

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State Taxation of Internet Transactions

Description: This report discusses significant issues in the remote sales tax collection debate, beginning with a description of state and local sales and use taxes.
Date: May 7, 2013
Creator: Maguire, Steven
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tax Credit Bonds: Overview and Analysis

Description: Almost all state and local governments sell bonds to finance public projects and certain qualified private activities. Most of the bonds issued are tax-exempt bonds because the interest payments are not included in the bondholder's (purchaser's) federal taxable income. In contrast, Tax Credit Bonds (TCBs) are a type of bond that offers the holder a federal tax credit instead of interest. This report explains the tax credit mechanism and describes the market for the bonds.
Date: July 29, 2010
Creator: Maguire, Steven
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tax Havens: International Tax Avoidance and Evasion

Description: The first section of this report reviews what countries might be considered tax havens, including a discussion of the Organization for Economic Development and Cooperation (OECD) initiatives and lists. The next two sections discuss, in turn, the corporate profit-shifting mechanisms and evidence on the existence and magnitude of profit shifting activity. The following two sections provide the same analysis for individual tax evasion. The report concludes with overviews of alternative policy options and a summary of specific legislative proposals.
Date: June 4, 2010
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tax Havens: International Tax Avoidance and Evasion

Description: The first section of this report reviews what countries might be considered tax havens, including a discussion of the Organization for Economic Development and Cooperation (OECD) initiatives and lists. The next two sections discuss, in turn, the corporate profit-shifting mechanisms and evidence on the existence and magnitude of profit shifting activity. The following two sections provide the same analysis for individual tax evasion. The report concludes with overviews of alternative policy options and a summary of specific legislative proposals.
Date: September 3, 2010
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tax Havens: International Tax Avoidance and Evasion

Description: The first section of this report reviews what countries might be considered tax havens, including a discussion of the Organization for Economic Development and Cooperation (OECD) initiatives and lists. The next two sections discuss, in turn, the corporate profit-shifting mechanisms and evidence on the existence and magnitude of profit shifting activity. The following two sections provide the same analysis for individual tax evasion. The report concludes with overviews of alternative policy options and a summary of specific legislative proposals.
Date: January 23, 2013
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

State Taxation of Internet Transactions

Description: This report intends to clarify significant issues in the remote sales tax collection debate, beginning with a description of state and local sales and use taxes. Congress has a role in this issue because interstate commerce, in most cases, falls under the Commerce Clause of the Constitution.
Date: April 19, 2013
Creator: Maguire, Steven
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tax Havens: International Tax Avoidance and Evasion

Description: The first section of this report reviews what countries might be considered tax havens, including a discussion of the Organization for Economic Development and Cooperation (OECD) initiatives and lists. The next two sections discuss, in turn, the corporate profit-shifting mechanisms and evidence on the existence and magnitude of profit-shifting activity. The following two sections provide the same analysis for individual tax evasion. The report concludes with overviews of alternative policy options, a summary of legislation enacted in the 111th Congress, and a summary of specific legislative proposals.
Date: January 15, 2015
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

State Taxation of Internet Transactions

Description: This report intends to clarify significant issues in the remote sales tax collection debate, beginning with a description of state and local sales and use taxes. Congress has a role in this issue because interstate commerce, in most cases, falls under the Commerce Clause of the Constitution. Congress will likely be asked to choose between taking either an active or passive role in the debate. In the 111th Congress, H.R. 5660 (former Representative Delahunt) would have granted SSUTA member states the authority to compel out-of- state vendors to collect sales and use taxes.
Date: June 7, 2011
Creator: Maguire, Steven
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Restrictions on Itemized Tax Deductions: Policy Options and Analysis

Description: This report analyzes various proposals to restrict itemized deductions--both across-the-board and individually tailored--using standard economic criteria of economic efficiency, distribution, simplicity, and estimated revenue effects. In particular, this report estimates each proposal's potential to contribute to revenue-neutral reductions in income tax rates and the consequences for economic behavior.
Date: May 21, 2013
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Bush Tax Cuts and the Economy

Description: This report examines the Bush tax cuts within the context of the current and long-term economic and budgetary environment.
Date: September 3, 2010
Creator: Hungerford, Thomas L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Medical Device Excise Tax: Economic Analysis

Description: This report reviews the issues surrounding the medical devices tax within the framework of basic principles surrounding the choice of commodities to tax under excise taxes. The next section describes the tax and its legislative origins. After that, the report analyzes the arguments for retaining and repealing the tax.
Date: November 3, 2014
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G. & Lowry, Sean
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Deductibility of State and Local Taxes

Description: This report provides a brief history of deductible state and local taxes, and discusses deduction for real estate property taxes, deductions for income, sales, and use taxes. The report also discusses policy alternatives and current legislation.
Date: November 10, 2014
Creator: Maguire, Steven & Stupak, Jeffrey M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recently Expired Community Assistance Related Tax Provisions ("Tax Extenders"): In Brief

Description: This report briefly summarizes four community assistance-related tax provisions included in the Expiring Provisions Improvement Reform and Efficiency (EXPIRE) Act, which are the New Markets Tax Credit, Empowerment Zone Tax Incentives, allocation of bond limitations for Qualified Zone Academy Bonds, and the American Samoa Economic Development Credit. The EXPIRE Act would extend each of these provisions for two years (through 2015). A discussion of their economic impact and related extension bills in the 113th Congress is also included.
Date: October 21, 2014
Creator: Lowry, Sean
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recently Expired Charitable Tax Provisions ("Tax Extenders"): In Brief

Description: This report discusses the four charitable tax provisions are discussed in this report: the enhanced charitable deduction for contributions of food inventory; tax-free distributions from individual retirement accounts for charitable purposes; basis adjustment to stock of S corporations making charitable contributions of property; and special rules for contributions of capital gain real property for conservation purposes.
Date: October 17, 2014
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G. & Sherlock, Molly F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Selected Recently Expired Individual Tax Provisions ("Extenders"): In Brief

Description: This report briefly summarizes and discusses items categorized as individual tax provisions. These and other temporary tax provisions that are regularly extended for one or two years are often referred to as "tax extenders."
Date: October 17, 2014
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Health-Related Tax Expenditures: Overview and Analysis

Description: This report analyzes health-related tax expenditures together at the budget function level, rather than focusing on the size of any single provision. To provide some insights into common questions about health-related expenditures, this report analyzes historical data on health-related tax expenditure estimates published by the Joint Committee on Taxation (JCT).
Date: January 8, 2016
Creator: Lowry, Sean
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tax Provisions that Expired in 2014 ("Tax Extenders")

Description: This report provides a broad overview of the tax extenders that retroactively extend expired tax provisions, including the Tax Increase Prevention Act of 2014, which made tax provisions that had expired at the end of 2013 available to taxpayers for the 2014 tax year.
Date: February 6, 2015
Creator: Sherlock, Molly F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tax Options for Financing Health Care Reform

Description: This report reviews the revenue raisers proposed to fund health care reform. Other financing proposals are presented including those made by the Obama Administration and those introduced in earlier congressional work. The final sections discuss other proposals suggested by the round-table discussion participants.
Date: March 2, 2010
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Rum Excise Tax Cover-Over: Legislative History and Current Issues

Description: This report provides a history and analysis of the rum cover-over program and current legislative efforts to modify the program. The congressional debate on this legislation could also lead to debate on the broader issue of the cover-over program more generally.
Date: January 20, 2010
Creator: Maguire, Steven & Teefy, Jennifer
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tax Reform: An Overview of Proposals in the 111th Congress

Description: This report primarily covers fundamental tax reform by discussing background and proposals for review during the 111th Congress. It includes sections about fundamental tax reform, the relationship between income and consumption, what should be taxed, types of broad-based consumption taxes, international comparisons, other types of fundamental tax reform, legislative proposals and other legislation, and sections looking at other specific kinds of taxation.
Date: March 19, 2010
Creator: Bickley, James M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dependent Care: Current Tax Benefits and Legislative Issues

Description: This report discusses current tax treatment of dependent care expenses under those two provisions and options for changing those policies. Two income tax provisions help taxpayers pay for the costs of caring for children and older dependents who cannot care for themselves.
Date: February 4, 2015
Creator: Meyerson, Noah P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estate Tax Options

Description: After a brief description of the estate and gift tax and of options, this report compares the alternatives, focusing largely on a $1 million exemption and 55% rate, a $3.5 million exemption and a 45% rate, and a $5 million exemption and a 35% rate. Several policy effects and issues are analyzed: the share of decedents subject to tax, revenue effects, distributional effects, and effects on savings, charitable contributions, and compliance and administration. The report also considers other aspects of the proposals, such as whether the exemptions are indexed for inflation, a proposed inheritance of the exemption for spouses, and proposals to address perceived abuses.
Date: April 23, 2010
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC): An Economic Analysis

Description: This report discusses the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), which is a refundable tax credit available to eligible workers earning relatively low wages
Date: June 2, 2015
Creator: Crandall-Hollick, Margot L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Certain Temporary Tax Provisions Scheduled to Expire in 2009 (“Extenders”)

Description: This report discusses numerous temporary tax provisions exist in the tax code. Often referred to as “extenders,” these provisions were originally enacted with an expiration date that has then been temporarily extended, in some cases numerous times.
Date: September 8, 2010
Creator: Bickley, James M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department