Congressional Research Service Reports - 191 Matching Results

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Dynamic Scoring for Tax Legislation: A Review of Models
This report first explains dynamic scoring, including the types of effects incorporated and the types of models used, as well as what groups conduct or have conducted macroeconomic analysis of tax changes. The following section discusses the specific issues associated with tax reform. The final section discusses general issues surrounding the use of various models and reviews the empirical evidence on supply side responses.
Dynamic Scoring
This report explains dynamic scoring, including the types of effects incorporated and the types of models used, as well as what groups conduct or have conducted macroeconomic analysis of tax changes.
Taxes and the Economy: An Economic Analysis of the Top Tax Rates Since 1945 (Updated)
Income tax rates are at the center of many recent policy debates over taxes. Some policymakers argue that raising tax rates, especially on higher income taxpayers, to increase tax revenues is part of the solution for long-term debt reduction. This report examines the top tax rates since 1945 and analyzes the ways in which tax rates affect economic growth.
Reform of U.S. International Taxation: Alternatives
This report describes and assesses the principal prescriptions that have been offered for broad reform of the international system.3 It begins with an overview of current law and possible revisions. It then sets the framework for considering economic efficiency as well as tax shelter activities. Finally, it reviews alternative approaches to revision in light of those issues.
Dynamic Scoring for Tax Legislation: A Review of Models
This report first explains dynamic scoring, including the types of effects incorporated and the types of models used, as well as what groups conduct or have conducted macroeconomic analysis of tax changes. The following section discusses the specific issues associated with tax reform. The final section discusses general issues surrounding the use of various models and reviews the empirical evidence on supply side responses.
Spending and Tax Expenditures: Distinctions and Major Programs
This report identifies the largest spending and tax expenditures across eight major categories of federal activity: (1) defense and international affairs; (2) general science, space and technology, natural resources and the environment, and agriculture; (3) commerce and housing, community and regional development, and transportation; (4) education, training, employment, and social services; (5) health, including Medicare; (6) income security; (7) Social Security and veterans' benefits; and (8) administration of justice and general governance.
Taxation of Unemployment Benefits
Unemployment compensation (UC) benefits have been fully subject to the federal income tax since the passage of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (P.L. 99-514). Individuals who receive UC benefits during a year may elect to have the federal (and in some cases state) income tax withheld from their benefits. This report provides an overview of the taxation of UC benefits and legislation related to taxing UC benefits.
Taxation of Unemployment Benefits
Unemployment compensation (UC) benefits have been fully subject to the federal income tax since the passage of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (P.L. 99-514). Individuals who receive UC benefits during a year may elect to have the federal (and in some cases state) income tax withheld from their benefits. This report provides an overview of the taxation of UC benefits and legislation related to taxing UC benefits.
Taxation of Unemployment Benefits
Unemployment compensation (UC) benefits have been fully subject to the federal income tax since the passage of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (P.L. 99-514). Individuals who receive UC benefits during a year may elect to have the federal (and in some cases state) income tax withheld from their benefits. This report provides an overview of the taxation of UC benefits and legislation related to taxing UC benefits.
Taxation of Unemployment Benefits
Unemployment compensation (UC) benefits have been fully subject to the federal income tax since the passage of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (P.L. 99-514). Individuals who receive UC benefits during a year may elect to have the federal (and in some cases state) income tax withheld from their benefits. This report provides an overview of the taxation of UC benefits and legislation related to taxing UC benefits.
Internet Sales and State Taxes: Policy Issues
This report discusses Internet sales, which do not always include sales and use tax. Customers who do not pay sales or use tax to the vendor are typically required to remit the tax to their home state.
Taxpayers with Zero Income Tax Liability: Trends Over Time and Across Income Levels
This report discusses situations when individuals or households have not paid federal income taxes because their income was below the filing threshold.
The Internet Tax Freedom Act: In Brief
This report discusses the Internet Tax Freedom Act (ITFA; P.L. 105-277) enacted in 1998, which implemented a three-year moratorium preventing state and local governments from taxing Internet access, or imposing multiple or discriminatory taxes on electronic commerce.
U.S. International Corporate Taxation: Basic Concepts and Policy Issues
This report provides a general introduction to the basic concepts and issues relevant to the U.S. international corporate tax system. The explanations provided in this report emphasize the underlying concepts of the international tax system and are intended to be as simplified as possible.
The Individual Mandate for Health Insurance Coverage: In Brief
This report provides an overview of the individual mandate, its associated penalty, and the exemptions from the mandate. It discusses the ACA reporting requirements designed, in part, to assist individuals in providing evidence of having met the mandate. The report includes some national- and state-level data on the application of the mandate's penalty in tax year (TY) 2014 and TY2015.
Recently Expired Individual Tax Provisions (Tax Extenders"): In Brief
This report provides background information on individual income tax provisions that expired in 2016. Information on costs associated with extending individual income tax expired provisions is provided in Table 1. The provisions that were extended in the PATH Act were extended for two years, retroactive for 2015 and through 2016. The estimated cost to make expired provisions permanent is as reported by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO). The CBO reports estimated deficit effects of extending expired and expiring tax provisions through the 10-year budget window (2018 – 2027).
The Individual Mandate for Health Insurance Coverage: In Brief
This report provides an overview of the individual mandate, its associated penalty, and the exemptions from the mandate. It discusses the ACA reporting requirements designed, in part, to assist individuals in providing evidence of having met the mandate. The report includes some national- and state-level data on the application of the mandate's penalty in tax year (TY) 2014 and TY2015.
The Distribution of the Tax Policy Changes in H.R 1 and the Senate's Tax Cuts and Jobs Act
This report discusses the Joint Committee on Taxation's (JCT) November 14, 2017 distributional analysis report of the House and Senate's proposed tax reform legislation which outlines how the changes made by the bill would effect the economic well-being of American taxpayers.
501(c)(4)s and the Gift Tax: Legal Analysis
This report discusses whether substantial donations to tax-exempt 501(c)(4) organizations are subject to the federal gift tax.
U.S. International Corporate Taxation: Basic Concepts and Policy Issues
This report provides a general introduction to the basic concepts and issues relevant to the U.S. international corporate tax system. The explanations provided in this report emphasize the underlying concepts of the international tax system and are intended to be as simplified as possible.
The Internet Tax Freedom Act: In Brief
This report discusses the Internet Tax Freedom Act (ITFA; P.L. 105-277), which enacted in 1998, implemented a three-year moratorium preventing state and local governments from taxing Internet access, or imposing multiple or discriminatory taxes on electronic commerce.
Selected Recently Expired Business Tax Provisions ("Tax Extenders")
This report briefly summarizes and discusses the economic impact of selected business-related tax provisions that expired at the end of 2013 and that are being considered for extension.
What Effects Would the Expiration of the 2001 and 2003 Tax Cuts Have on the Economy?
In 2001 and 2003, Congress enacted major tax cuts (popularly referred to as the "Bush tax cuts"), the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 and the Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2003. Congress is currently debating whether to extend some or all of these tax cuts that are scheduled to expire at the end of 2010. This report discusses the two main economic arguments against allowing the tax cuts to expire as scheduled, using historical evidence and by examining the current economic environment.
The Federal Excise Tax on Gasoline and the Highway Trust Fund: A Short History
A history and overview of current issues relating to the gasoline excise tax.
The Internet Tax Freedom Act: In Brief
This report discusses the Internet Tax Freedom Act (ITFA; P.L. 105-277), which enacted in 1998, implemented a three-year moratorium preventing state and local governments from taxing Internet access, or imposing multiple or discriminatory taxes on electronic commerce.
Tax Havens: International Tax Avoidance and Evasion
The first section of this report reviews what countries might be considered tax havens, including a discussion of the Organization for Economic Development and Cooperation (OECD) initiatives and lists. The next two sections discuss, in turn, the corporate profit-shifting mechanisms and evidence on the existence and magnitude of profit-shifting activity. The following two sections provide the same analysis for individual tax evasion. The report concludes with overviews of alternative policy options, a summary of legislation enacted in the 111th Congress, and a summary of specific legislative proposals.
Tax Havens: International Tax Avoidance and Evasion
The first section of this report reviews what countries might be considered tax havens, including a discussion of the Organization for Economic Development and Cooperation (OECD) initiatives and lists. The next two sections discuss, in turn, the corporate profit-shifting mechanisms and evidence on the existence and magnitude of profit shifting activity. The following two sections provide the same analysis for individual tax evasion. The report concludes with overviews of alternative policy options and a summary of specific legislative proposals.
Tax Havens: International Tax Avoidance and Evasion
The first section of this report reviews what countries might be considered tax havens, including a discussion of the Organization for Economic Development and Cooperation (OECD) initiatives and lists. The next two sections discuss, in turn, the corporate profit-shifting mechanisms and evidence on the existence and magnitude of profit shifting activity. The following two sections provide the same analysis for individual tax evasion. The report concludes with overviews of alternative policy options and a summary of specific legislative proposals.
Tax Credit Bonds: Overview and Analysis
Almost all state and local governments sell bonds to finance public projects and certain qualified private activities. Most of the bonds issued are tax-exempt bonds because the interest payments are not included in the bondholder's (purchaser's) federal taxable income. In contrast, Tax Credit Bonds (TCBs) are a type of bond that offers the holder a federal tax credit instead of interest. This report explains the tax credit mechanism and describes the market for the bonds.
Tax Havens: International Tax Avoidance and Evasion
The first section of this report reviews what countries might be considered tax havens, including a discussion of the Organization for Economic Development and Cooperation (OECD) initiatives and lists. The next two sections discuss, in turn, the corporate profit-shifting mechanisms and evidence on the existence and magnitude of profit shifting activity. The following two sections provide the same analysis for individual tax evasion. The report concludes with overviews of alternative policy options and a summary of specific legislative proposals.
State Taxation of Internet Transactions
This report intends to clarify significant issues in the remote sales tax collection debate, beginning with a description of state and local sales and use taxes. Congress has a role in this issue because interstate commerce, in most cases, falls under the Commerce Clause of the Constitution.
State Taxation of Internet Transactions
This report discusses significant issues in the remote sales tax collection debate, beginning with a description of state and local sales and use taxes.
State Taxation of Internet Transactions
This report intends to clarify significant issues in the remote sales tax collection debate, beginning with a description of state and local sales and use taxes. Congress has a role in this issue because interstate commerce, in most cases, falls under the Commerce Clause of the Constitution. Congress will likely be asked to choose between taking either an active or passive role in the debate. In the 111th Congress, H.R. 5660 (former Representative Delahunt) would have granted SSUTA member states the authority to compel out-of- state vendors to collect sales and use taxes.
Health-Related Tax Expenditures: Overview and Analysis
This report analyzes health-related tax expenditures together at the budget function level, rather than focusing on the size of any single provision. To provide some insights into common questions about health-related expenditures, this report analyzes historical data on health-related tax expenditure estimates published by the Joint Committee on Taxation (JCT).
Dependent Care: Current Tax Benefits and Legislative Issues
This report discusses current tax treatment of dependent care expenses under those two provisions and options for changing those policies. Two income tax provisions help taxpayers pay for the costs of caring for children and older dependents who cannot care for themselves.
Estate Tax Options
After a brief description of the estate and gift tax and of options, this report compares the alternatives, focusing largely on a $1 million exemption and 55% rate, a $3.5 million exemption and a 45% rate, and a $5 million exemption and a 35% rate. Several policy effects and issues are analyzed: the share of decedents subject to tax, revenue effects, distributional effects, and effects on savings, charitable contributions, and compliance and administration. The report also considers other aspects of the proposals, such as whether the exemptions are indexed for inflation, a proposed inheritance of the exemption for spouses, and proposals to address perceived abuses.
The Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC): An Economic Analysis
This report discusses the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), which is a refundable tax credit available to eligible workers earning relatively low wages
Certain Temporary Tax Provisions Scheduled to Expire in 2009 (“Extenders”)
This report discusses numerous temporary tax provisions exist in the tax code. Often referred to as “extenders,” these provisions were originally enacted with an expiration date that has then been temporarily extended, in some cases numerous times.
Tax Reform in the 114th Congress: An Overview of Proposals
This report provides background information regarding tax reform and discusses ways to make the U.S. tax system simpler, fairer, and more efficient.
Individual Taxpayer Identification Number (ITIN) Filers and the Child Tax Credit: Overview and Legislation
This report discusses the child tax credit, which was created by the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997 (P.L. 105-34) to help ease the financial burden on families when they have children. The ACTC is available to taxpayers with little or no federal income tax liability.
An Overview of Recent Tax Reform Proposals
This report provides a review of legislative tax reform proposals introduced since the 113th Congress. Several proposals have already been introduced in the 115th Congress to replace the current income tax system.
EU State Aid and Apple's Taxes
This report discusses the recent investigations by the European Union (EU) regarding claims that certain countries had provided illegal state aid via favorable tax rulings.
Buying American: Protecting U.S. Manufacturing Through the Berry and Kissell Amendments
This report discusses the Berry and Kissell amendments, two separate but closely-related laws requiring that certain goods purchased by national security agencies be produced in the United States.
The Excise Tax on High-Cost Employer- Sponsored Health Insurance: Estimated Economic and Market Effects
This report examines several issues related to health insurance: it evaluates the potential of the Cadillac tax to affect health insurance coverage (and, therefore, the health market), and examines the expected incidence (burden) of the tax--that is, which group will pay the price of the tax.
Tax Reform: The Child Credit and the Child Care Credit
This report discusses the child credit and the child care credit and what changes are being made to them in the new tax reform plan currently being debated. This report provides background to help assess who would be assisted by potential changes to either credit. It shows what types of families with children receive both credits and how the credits are distributed across the income distribution.
Alternative Minimum Taxpayers by State: 2009, 2010, and Projections for 2012
Report that breaks down, state-by-state, the percentage of taxpayers subject to Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT), and also maps out these projections for the year 2012.
Tax Provisions to Assist with Disaster Recovery
Report that provides a basic overview of existing, permanent provisions that benefit victims of disasters, as well as past, targeted legislative responses to particular disasters. The relief is discussed without examining either the qualifications for or the limitation on claiming the provisions' benefits.
Import Tariff or Border Tax: What is the Difference and Why Does it Matter?
This report briefly describes the difference between import tariffs and border taxes and whether the President may unilaterally impose them without congressional approval.
Business Tax Provisions That Expired in 2016 ("Tax Extenders")
This report briefly summarizes and discusses the economic impact of selected business-related tax provisions that expired at the end of 2016. Types of business provisions covered are special business investment (cost recovery), economic development, and other miscellaneous business-related matters.
Itemized Tax Deductions for Individuals: Data Analysis
This report analyzes the most recently available public data from the Internal Revenue Service's (IRS) Statistics of Income (SOI) to provide an overview of who claims itemized deductions, what they claim them for, and the amount in deductions claimed. In addition, the revenue loss associated with several of the larger deductions is presented using data from the Joint Committee on Taxation's (JCT's) tax expenditure estimates. This report concludes with a brief discussion of the implications of various policy options to reform or limit itemized deductions.