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501(c)(4)s and Campaign Activity: Analysis Under Tax and Campaign Finance Laws

Description: This report discusses 501(c)(4) social welfare organizations, including the requirements necessary to maintain 501(c)(4) status and the requirements for annual reporting to the Internal Revenue Service and Federal Election Commission.
Date: May 17, 2013
Creator: Lunder, Erika K. & Whitaker, L. P.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

501(c)(4)s and the Gift Tax: Legal Analysis

Description: This report discusses whether substantial donations to tax-exempt 501(c)(4) organizations are subject to the federal gift tax.
Date: August 10, 2012
Creator: Luckey, John R. & Lunder, Erika K.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The 2001 and 2003 Bush Tax Cuts and Deficit Reduction

Description: This report uses the context of the current and long-term economic environment to examine the tax cuts implemented by the George W. Bush Administration, including the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 and the Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2003.
Date: July 18, 2012
Creator: Hungerford, Thomas L.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The 2003 Tax Cut: Proposals and Issues

Description: This report provides a brief description of each tax cut proposal, including major proposals offered by the Democrats in both the House and the Senate during 2003. It discusses the distributional affects of the proposals and potential effects on short and long term economic growth.
Date: July 16, 2004
Creator: Brumbaugh, David L. & Richards, Don C.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Addressing the Long-Run Budget Deficit: A Comparison of Approaches

Description: The growth of the national debt, which is considered unsustainable under current policies, continues to be one of the central issues of domestic federal policy making. On August 2, 2011, Congress adopted, and the President signed, the Budget Control Act (BCA; P.L. 112-25), which might be viewed as an initial step in addressing long-run debt issues. This report examines alternative approaches to reducing the deficit, relating to the immediate issues arising from the BCA and the extended tax cuts as well as to ongoing, longer-term decisions about how to bring the debt under control. It focuses on the trade-offs between limiting the provision of defense and domestic public goods, reducing transfers to persons including entitlements for the elderly and those with low income, reducing support for state and local governments, and raising taxes. Using projections of the debt and deficit, it also addresses how limiting reliance on one source of deficit reduction creates pressure on other sources.
Date: December 9, 2014
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Addressing the Long-Run Budget Deficit: A Comparison of Approaches

Description: Report that examines alternative approaches to reducing the deficit, relating to the immediate issues arising from the Budget Control Act and the expiring tax cuts as well as to ongoing longer term decisions about how to bring the debt under control.
Date: November 30, 2012
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

"Amazon Laws" and Taxation of Internet Sales: Constitutional Analysis

Description: As more purchases are made over the Internet, states are looking for new ways to collect taxes on online sales. There is a common misperception that the U.S. Constitution prohibits states from taxing Internet sales. This report discusses "Amazon laws", which try to capture uncollected taxes on Internet sales and yet still comply with the Constitution's requirements.
Date: November 28, 2014
Creator: Lunder, Erika K. & Pettit, Carol A.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

"Amazon Laws" and Taxation of Internet Sales: Constitutional Analysis

Description: This report focuses on the ways in which the states' efforts to impose requirements on out-of-state retailers are limited by the Constitution. The report discusses recent state legislation as well as legislation introduced in the two most recent Congresses.
Date: April 3, 2013
Creator: Lunder, Erika K. & Pettit, Carol A.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

“Amazon” Laws and Taxation of Internet Sales: Constitutional Analysis

Description: This report covers ways in which states are attempting to capture taxes on Internet sales. Two basic approaches include imposing tax collection responsibilities on the retailer, and requiring remote sellers to provide tax information to the state and/or it's customers. This report covers the legality of both options.
Date: July 26, 2012
Creator: Lunder, Erika K. & Luckey, John R.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The American Opportunity Tax Credit: Overview, Analysis, and Policy Options

Description: This report provides both an in-depth description of this tax credit and an analysis of its economic impact. This report is organized to first provide an overview of the American Opportunity Tax Credit (AOTC), followed by a legislative history that highlights the evolution of education tax credits from proposals in the 1960s through the recent extension of the AOTC at the end of 2012. This report then analyzes the credit by looking at who claims the credit, the effect education tax credits have on increasing college attendance, and administrative issues with the AOTC. Finally, this report concludes with a brief overview of various policy options, including tax law changes proposed in Chairman Camp's tax reform bill3 and in the President's FY2015 budget request.
Date: July 10, 2014
Creator: Crandall-Hollick, Margot L.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The American Opportunity Tax Credit: Overview, Analysis, and Policy Options

Description: This report gives an overview of the American Opportunity Tax Credit (AOTC)—enacted on a temporary basis by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act and extended through the end of 2012 by the Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010— which is a partially-refundable tax credit that provides financial assistance to taxpayers who are attending college, or whose children are attending college. There are a variety of policy options mentioned in the report regarding the AOTC, including extending the credit, extending a modified AOTC, or repealing the Hope and Lifetime Credits and extending a modified AOTC that includes provisions included in these credits.
Date: June 11, 2012
Creator: Crandall-Hollick, Margot L.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Analysis of the “Buffett Rule”

Description: This report examines the Buffett rule, but uses a measure of income that captures the ability to pay taxes and incorporates the effect of the corporate income tax in addition to the individual income tax and the payroll tax. The Buffet rule states that "no household making over $1 million annually should pay a smaller share of its income in taxes than middle-class families pay" and is named after Warren Buffett, the chairman of Berkshire Hathaway. The report includes figures, tables, and appendices to illustrate calculations and issues involved with the topic.
Date: October 7, 2011
Creator: Hungerford, Thomas L.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Analysis of the Geographic Distribution of the Mortgage Interest Deduction

Description: This report analyzes variation in the mortgage interest deduction tax expenditure across states. Tax expenditures, such as the mortgage interest deduction, can generally be viewed as government spending administered via the tax code, or as tax incentives that are intended to achieve particular policy objectives. Regardless of the interpretation, tax expenditures provide a benefit to qualifying taxpayers by lowering their federal tax liabilities.
Date: January 30, 2014
Creator: Keightley, Mark P.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of the Tax Exclusion for Canceled Mortgage Debt Income

Description: This report begins with an overview and analysis of the historical tax treatment of canceled debt income. Next, the changes enacted by recent legislation are reviewed. A discussion of policy options concludes.
Date: December 30, 2015
Creator: Keightley, Mark P. & Lunder, Erika
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application Process for Seeking 501(c)(3) Tax-Exempt Status

Description: Charities and other entities seeking tax-exempt status as 501(c)(3) organizations generally must apply to the Internal Revenue Service. This report provides an overview of the application process.
Date: January 7, 2005
Creator: Lunder, Erika
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Average Effective Corporate Tax Rates: 1959 to 2005

Description: This report examines average effective corporate tax rates of domestic nonfinancial corporations. Generally, the average effective corporate tax rate is total corporate tax receipts divided by corporate profits.
Date: September 6, 2006
Creator: Maguire, Steven
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aviation Taxes and the Airport and Airway Trust Fund

Description: This report discusses the reauthorization of excise tax revenues for the airport and airway trust fund, which has been a contentious issue for the last two years. Most of the concern during this period was about future funding needs for the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The issue, somewhat unexpectedly, became an element of the tax plans embedded in House and Senate FY1998 budget reconciliation proposals. The House proposed a major structural change in how aviation taxes would be imposed.
Date: August 12, 1997
Creator: Fischer, John W.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Brief Facts and Statistics

Description: This report provides facts and statistics about Social Security that are frequently requested by Members of Congress and their staffs. It includes information about Social Security taxes and benefits, the program's impact on its recipients' incomes, federal tax receipts, federal spending and the economy, administrative information, and selected facts about Medicare.
Date: January 26, 2006
Creator: Sidor, Gary
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Brief Overview of Business Types and Their Tax Treatment

Description: Report that provides a general overview of the tax treatment of the major business types, including sole proprietorships, partnerships, C corporations, subchapter S corporations, and limited liability companies.
Date: June 12, 2013
Creator: Keightley Mark P.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department