Congressional Research Service Reports - 318 Matching Results

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Foreign Ownership of Property in the United States: Federal and State Restrictions
This report examines various legal issues raised by Federal and State laws restricting foreign ownership in U. S. property. The report examines the constitutional barriers to Federal and State laws restricting such ownership, and the possible constitutional predicates for Federal legislation regulating foreign ownership of property in the united States. The impact of treaties to which the United States is a party on both Federal and State restrictions on the rights of foreign persons to own U.S. property is also discussed.
Block Grants
This report includes the material on block grants, including a CRS Report on the Omnibus Reconciliation Act of 1981, several articles, and a guide to State block grant implementation. For additional information and assistance, we have also included addresses of people to contact on the Federal (p. 59) and State levels (p. 70-104).
Federal and State Authority to Regulate Radioactive Waste Disposal and Transportation
There appears to be a growing controversy concerning whether a state has the authority to prevent the federal government from disposing of nuclear wastes within it and transporting nuclear wastes through it. Several states have statutes purporting to veto the federal government's action in these areas. This report investigates whether these state statutes may be unconstitutional and preempted by federal statutes and regulations.
Drunk Driving and Raising the Drinking Age
This brief report is prepared in response to numerous requests for information on the related issues of drunk driving and raising the drinking age.
Survey of State Statutes Affecting Voting by the Physically Handicapped
No Description Available.
National Minimum Drinking Age: Provisions and Analysis
No Description Available.
Speed Limits for Motor Vehicles
No Description Available.
Fish and Wildlife Service: Compensation to Local Governments
The Refuge Revenue Sharing Fund (RRSF) was enacted in response to the concern of local governments regarding losses to their tax base due to the presence of federally owned land under the jurisdiction of the Fish and Wildlife Service. This report outlines recent history of RRSF payment levels. It examines the RRSF and describes how the fund differs in its treatment of reserved and acquired lands under the jurisdiction of FWS. The report also examines the Payment in Lieu of Taxes (PILT) program in detail.
Unfunded Mandate Reform Act: A Brief Summary
No Description Available.
State Techniques to Blunt the Governor's Item-Veto Power
No Description Available.
American Federalism, 1776 to 1997: Significant Events
This report identifies several significant eras and events in the evolution of American federalism and provides a capsule description or discussion of each. It should be noted that among experts in the field of federalism there may be a general consensus concerning the evolution of American federalism; however, the choice of events and scholarly interpretations of such events may vary and are by nature subjective.
Electric Utility Restructuring: Overview of Basic Policy Questions
Proposals to increase competition in the electric utility industry involve segmenting electric functions (generation, transmission, distribution) that are currently integrated (or bundled) in most cases (both in terms of corporate and rate structures). This report identifies five basic issues this effort raises for the Congress to consider as the debate on restructuring proceeds.
The New Welfare Law: Temporary Assistance for Needy Families
No Description Available.
New Welfare Law: Comparison of the New Block Grant Program with Aid to Families with Dependent Children
No Description Available.
Superfund and States: The State Role and Other Issues
No Description Available.
The Governors and Lieutenant Governors of the States and Other Jurisdictions
No Description Available.
The State Children's Health Insurance Program: Guidance on Frequently Asked Questions
No Description Available.
Drunk Driving: Should Each State Be Required to Enact a 0.08 Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) Law?
At the 0.08 BAC level of alcohol, braking, steering, lane changing, and judgment are degraded and the driving performance of virtually all drivers is substantially impaired. During the debate on reauthorization of the federal surface transportation programs, an amendment that would require each state either to enact a 0.08 BAC law or face the loss of a portion of its Federal Highway Trust Fund monies passed the Senate and will likely be considered in the House. This proposal raises questions about the effectiveness and impacts of a 0.08 BAC law, the rights of states versus the federal government, and alternative ways to encourage the states to adopt stronger impaired driving countermeasures.
Mandates Information Act: Implications for Congressional Action on Legislation Containing Private Sector Mandates
No Description Available.
Restructuring Electricity Markets, Public Power, and Tax-Exempt Bonds: An Economic Analysis
No Description Available.
National Tests: Administration Initiative
No Description Available.
PILT (Payments in Lieu of Taxes): Somewhat Simplified
No Description Available.
Community Services Block Grants: Background and Current Legislation
This report provides background on the Community Services Block Grants (CSBG) and related activities, including information on funding, and tracks the progress of relevant legislation and appropriations measures.
Managing Regional Growth: Is There a Role for Congress?
No Description Available.
Electric Utility Restructuring: Overview of Basic Policy Questions
Proposals to increase competition in the electric utility industry involve segmenting electric functions (generation, transmission, distribution) that are currently integrated (or bundled) in most cases (both in terms of corporate and rate structures). This report identifies five basic issues this effort raises for the Congress to consider as the debate on restructuring proceeds.
Mandates Information Act: Action in the 106th Congress
No Description Available.
Right to a Clean Environment Provisions in State Constitutions, and Arguments as to a Federal Counterpart
No Description Available.
Preemption Language in Federal Environmental Statutes
No Description Available.
Year 2000 Computer Problem: State Government Issues
The federal government sends and receives data from the states in support of many social service programs. Examples of such programs are: Medicare, Medicaid, Welfare, Food Stamps, and Unemployment Insurance. The federal government will not be able to deliver critical social services if data exchanges with state governments are not Y2K- compliant, yet there is no complete picture of their readiness.
State-by-State Comparison of Selected Electricity Restructuring Provisions
No Description Available.
Forest Service Revenue-Sharing Payments: Legislative Issues
The Forest Service (FS) returns 25% of the revenues from each national forest to the states for use on roads and schools in counties where the forests are located; the Bureau of Land Management shares 50% of its revenues with counties containing the Oregon & California grant lands. This report discusses the legislative concerns that have arisen because declining timber sales have reduced revenues.
Forest Service Receipt-Sharing Payments: Proposals for Change
In lieu of property taxes, the Forest Service generally shares 25% of receipts from the sale, lease, rental, or other use of the national forests to the states for use on roads and schools in the counties where the national forests are located. This report discusses concerns about the equity and stability of Forest Service receipt-sharing payments, especially with the decline in timber sales over the past decade, and about the incentives of the current system.
The State Children's Health Insurance Program: Eligibility, Enrollment, and Program Funding
No Description Available.
Community Development Block Grants: Funding and Other Issues in the 106th Congress
In this report Congress addresses a number of community development issues, including reauthorization of the CDBG and revision of the CDBG program definitions of entitlement communities and low- and moderate-income households. Congress also will consider legislation appropriating funds for the program for FY2001, including funding for a number of new initiatives proposed by the Clinton Administration.
Managing Regional Growth: Is There a Role for Congress?
No Description Available.
State Sales Taxation of Internet Transactions
No Description Available.
Crime Control: The Federal Response
Under the federal system in the United States, the states and localities traditionally have held the major responsibility for prevention and control of crime and maintenance of order. For most of the Republic’s history, “police powers” in the broad sense were reserved to the states under the Tenth Amendment to the Constitution. Many still hold that view, but others see a string of court decisions in recent decades as providing the basis for a far more active federal role. Several bills are discussed in this report that address issues related to crime, juvenile justice, and school violence.
Federalism and the Constitution: Limits on Congressional Power
No Description Available.
The State Children's Health Insurance Program: Eligibility, Enrollment, and Program Funding
No Description Available.
State Revenue from Estate, Inheritance, and Gift Taxes
No Description Available.
Terrorism at Home and Abroad: Applicable Federal and State Criminal Laws
No Description Available.
Terrorism Abroad: A Quick Look at Applicable Federal and State Laws
No Description Available.
Terrorism at Home: A Quick Look at Applicable Federal and State Criminal Laws
No Description Available.
TANF Sanctions - Brief Summary
No Description Available.
Internet Commerce and State Sales and Use Taxes
In theory, state sales and use taxes are based on the destination principle, which prescribes that taxes should be paid where the consumption takes place. States are concerned because they anticipate gradually losing more tax revenue as the growth of Internet commerce allows more residents to buy products from vendors located out-of-state and evade use taxes. The size of the revenue loss from Internet commerce and subsequent tax evasion is uncertain. Congress is involved in this issue because commerce conducted by parties in different states over the Internet falls under the Commerce Clause of the Constitution. The degree of congressional involvement is an open question.
Internet Commerce and State Sales and Use Taxes
State governments rely on sales and use taxes for approximately one-third (32.3%) of their total tax revenue – or approximately $174 billion in FY2000. Local governments derived 16.4% of their tax revenue or $51.6 billion from local sales and use taxes in FY1999. Both state and local sales taxes are collected by vendors at the time of transaction and are levied at a percentage of a product’s retail price. Alternatively, use taxes are not collected by vendors if they do not have nexus (loosely defined as a physical presence) in the consumer’s state. Consumers are required to remit use taxes to their taxing jurisdiction. However, compliance with this requirement is quite low. Because of the low compliance, many observers suggest that the expansion of the internet as a means of transacting business across state lines, both from business to consumer (B to C) and from business to business (B to B), threatens to diminish the ability of state and local governments to collect sales and use taxes. Congress has a role in this issue because commerce between parties in different states conducted over the Internet falls under the Commerce Clause of the Constitution. Congress can either take an active or passive role in the “Internet tax” debate. This report intends to clarify important issues in the Internet tax debate.
Internet Commerce and State Sales and Use Taxes
State governments rely on sales and use taxes for approximately one-third (32.3%) of their total tax revenue – or approximately $174 billion in FY2000. Local governments derived 16.4% of their tax revenue or $51.6 billion from local sales and use taxes in FY1999. Both state and local sales taxes are collected by vendors at the time of transaction and are levied at a percentage of a product’s retail price. Alternatively, use taxes are not collected by vendors if they do not have nexus (loosely defined as a physical presence) in the consumer’s state. Consumers are required to remit use taxes to their taxing jurisdiction. However, compliance with this requirement is quite low. Because of the low compliance, many observers suggest that the expansion of the internet as a means of transacting business across state lines, both from business to consumer (B to C) and from business to business (B to B), threatens to diminish the ability of state and local governments to collect sales and use taxes. Congress has a role in this issue because commerce between parties in different states conducted over the Internet falls under the Commerce Clause of the Constitution. Congress can either take an active or passive role in the “Internet tax” debate. This report intends to clarify important issues in the Internet tax debate.
State and Local Preparedness for Terrorism: Policy Issues and Options
No Description Available.
Optional Federal Chartering for Insurers: Major Interest Groups
No Description Available.
State and Local Preparedness for Terrorism: Policy Issues and Options
No Description Available.