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The International Space Station and the Space Shuttle

Description: This report discusses the International Space Station (ISS) program, which began in 1993, with Russia joining the United States, Europe, Japan, and Canada. Crews have occupied ISS on a 4-6 month rotating basis since November 2000.
Date: November 3, 2008
Creator: Behrens, Carl E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Iran Nonproliferation Act and the International Space Station: Issues and Options

Description: The Iran Nonproliferation Act of 2000 (INA) was enacted to help stop foreign transfers to Iran of weapons of mass destruction, missile technology, and advanced conventional weapons technology, particularly from Russia. Section 6 of the INA bans U.S. payments to Russia in connection with the International Space Station (ISS) unless the U.S. President determines that Russia is taking steps to prevent such proliferation. The ISS is currently under construction in orbit. According to current plans, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will become dependent on Russia for certain ISS crew-related services beginning in April 2006 for which NASA must pay. Thus, the INA could significantly affect U.S. utilization of ISS. This report outlines the history of INA, its effect on Russian and Iranian proliferation, its impact on the ISS program, and options for resolving associated issues.
Date: March 2, 2005
Creator: Squassoni, Sharon & Smith, Marcia S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Iran Nonproliferation Act and the International Space Station: Issues and Options

Description: The Iran Nonproliferation Act of 2000 (INA) was enacted to help stop foreign transfers to Iran of weapons of mass destruction, missile technology, and advanced conventional weapons technology, particularly from Russia. Section 6 of the INA bans U.S. payments to Russia in connection with the International Space Station (ISS) unless the U.S. President determines that Russia is taking steps to prevent such proliferation. The ISS is currently under construction in orbit. According to current plans, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will become dependent on Russia for certain ISS crew-related services beginning in April 2006 for which NASA must pay. Thus, the INA could significantly affect the U.S. utilization of ISS. This report outlines the history of INA, its effect on Russian and Iranian proliferation, its impact on the ISS program, and options for resolving associated issues. It will not be updated.
Date: March 2, 2005
Creator: Smith, Marcia S. & Smith, Marcia S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The International Space Station and the Iran Nonproliferation Act (INA): The Bush Administration's Proposed INA Amendment

Description: The Iran Nonproliferation Act (P.L. 106-178), as originally enacted, prohibited the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) from purchasing Russian goods and services for the U.S.-led International Space Station (ISS) unless the President certified that Russia was not proliferating certain technologies to Iran. On July 12, 2005, the Bush Administration submitted to Congress an amendment to allow NASA to purchase goods and services from Russia to support the ISS. That presented a classic policy dilemma. Without access to Russian spacecraft, the U.S. use of the ISS could be extremely limited. Yet Russian entities were continuing proliferation activities relating to missile proliferation according to the Department of State. This report explains the Bush Administration proposal and resulting congressional action.
Date: December 5, 2005
Creator: Smith, Marcia S. & Squassoni, Sharon
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Space Stations

Description: This report includes information regarding space stations. The Space Station Program, the International Space Station, and international partners are among topics discussed in this report.
Date: December 8, 2003
Creator: Smith, Marcia S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Space Stations

Description: This report looks into Congress' continued debate regarding NASA's International Space Station (ISS) program to build a permanently-occupied space station in Earth orbit where astronauts live and conduct research. NASA expects that research performed in the near-zero gravity environment of the space station will result in new discoveries in life sciences, biomedicine, and materials sciences. Current congressional space station debate focuses on the impact of the space shuttle Columbia tragedy on the ISS program; the possibility that portions of the space station may not be built for cost reasons; and whether Russia can fulfill its commitments to ISS.
Date: November 3, 2003
Creator: Smith, Marcia S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Space Stations

Description: Congress continues to debate NASA's program to build a permanently occupied space station in Earth orbit where astronauts live and conduct research. NASA expects that research performed in the near-zero gravity environment of the space station will result in new discoveries in life sciences, biomedicine, and materials sciences. The program is currently called the International Space Station (ISS); the facility itself does not have a name although individual modules do.
Date: May 16, 2001
Creator: Smith, Marcia S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Space Stations

Description: Congress continues to debate NASA's Europe, Japan, and Canada to build the plan to build a permanently occupied space station. They plan to provide station. Controversial since its inception in 1984, the space station, called Freedom for many years, was redesigned several times. Now it is tentatively called Alpha.
Date: February 21, 1995
Creator: Smith, Marcia S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Extending NASA's Exemption from the Iran, North Korea, and Syria Nonproliferation Act

Description: This report discusses NASA's exemptions from the Iran Nonproliferation Act of 2000 (INA) as it relates to the International Space Station (ISS). It provides background information on the ISS and nonproliferation as well as INA origins and relation to the ISS. It also discusses amendments to the INA, current plans for the ISS, and related issues.
Date: July 30, 2008
Creator: Behrens, Carl & Nikitin, Mary Beth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Space Stations

Description: congress continues to debate NASA’s International Space Station (ISS), a permanently occupied facility in Earth orbit where astronauts live and conduct research. Congress appropriated approximately $35 billion for the program from FY1985-2005. The initial FY2006 ISS request was $2.180 billion: $1.857 billion for construction and operations and $324 million for research to be conducted by ISS crews. In a July budget the amendment, NASA transferred $168 million for ISS Crew/Cargo Services to another part of the NASA budget and reduced the ISS request commensurately. The FY2006 appropriations act that includes NASA (P.L. 109- 108) cut $80 million from the originally submitted budget, and NASA now plans to spend $306 million, instead of $324 million, on ISS research in FY2006.
Date: January 4, 2006
Creator: Smith, Marcia S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Space Stations

Description: Congress continues to debate NASA’s International Space Station (ISS), a permanently occupied facility in Earth orbit where astronauts live and conduct research. Congress appropriated approximately $35 billion for the program from FY1985-2005. The initial FY2006 ISS request was $2.180 billion: $1.857 billion for construction and operations and $324 million for research to be conducted by ISS crews. In a July budget amendment, NASA transferred $168 million for ISS Crew/Cargo Services to another part of the NASA budget and reduced the ISS request commensurately. The final version of the FY2006 appropriations bill that includes NASA (H.R. 2862) cuts $80 million from the originally submitted budget, and NASA now plans to spend $306 million, instead of $324 million, on ISS research in FY2006.
Date: November 17, 2005
Creator: Smith, Marcia S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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