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Science and Technology Policy: Issues for the 109th Congress

Description: Science and technology have a pervasive influence over a wide range of issues confronting the nation. Decisions on how much federal funding to invest in research and development (R&D), and determining what programs have the highest priority, for example, may have implications for homeland security, new high technology industries, government/private sector cooperation in R&D, and myriad other areas. This report indicates the sweep of science and technology in many public policy issues, although it cannot provide a comprehensive examination of every science or technology issue which may be of interest to Congress. This report identifies other CRS reports that treat most of those issues in more depth. It is updated occasionally.
Date: August 22, 2005
Creator: Smith, Marcia S.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. National Science Foundation: An Overview

Description: This report describes the National Science Foundation (NSF) that was created by the National Science Foundation Act of 1950, as amended (P.L. 81-507).
Date: March 7, 2002
Creator: Matthews, Christine M.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Research and Development: Budgeting and Priority-Setting Issues, 108th Congress

Description: This report discusses federal funding for research and development. National R&D funding continues to grow, but the federal R&D share has declined to less than 30% of the total. Debates focus on which fields of federal R&D should be increased and how to set priorities and to "balance" health and nonhealth fields.
Date: December 1, 2004
Creator: Knezo, Genevieve J.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The President's Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP): Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides an overview of the history of science and technology (S&T) advice to the President. It also discusses selected issues and options for Congress regarding OSTP's Director, OSTP management and operations, the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), and the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC).
Date: January 13, 2014
Creator: Sargent Jr., John F. & Shea, Dana A.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The DHS S&T Directorate: Selected Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides a brief overview of the Science and Technology (S&T) Directorate's mission, organization, and budgetary structure; a discussion of selected critiques of the S&T Directorate; and an analysis of selected issues facing congressional policymakers.
Date: April 14, 2014
Creator: Shea, Dana A.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The President's Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP): Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides an overview of the history of science and technology (S&T) advice to the President and discusses selected issues and options for Congress regarding the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Director, OSTP management and operations, the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), and the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC).
Date: January 13, 2014
Creator: Sargent, John F., Jr. & Shea, Dana A.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010 (H.R. 5116) and the America COMPETES Act (P.L. 110-69): Selected Policy Issues

Description: This report provides background information on P.L. 110-69 and H.R. 5116, includes information about related legislative activity in the 111th Congress, and analyzes four policy issues addressed by these measures: (1) STEM Education, (2) Federal Research Programs and Activities, (3) Broadening Participation, and (4) Funding. It also discusses selected policy concerns identified in the debate about U.S. competitiveness and describes how the House-passed version of H.R. 5116 responds to those concerns. It contains a description of federal multi-agency research and development initiatives that are included in H.R. 5116, as passed by the House.
Date: December 21, 2010
Creator: Gonzalez, Heather B.; Sargent, John F., Jr. & Moloney Figliola, Patricia
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Helium-3 Shortage: Supply, Demand, and Options for Congress

Description: The world is experiencing a shortage of helium-3, a rare isotope of helium with applications in homeland security, national security, medicine, industry, and science. Federal officials have testified that the shortage is acute and, unless alternatives are found, will affect federal investments in homeland security, scientific research, and other areas. This report discusses the nature of the shortage; federal actions undertaken so far to address it; current and potential sources of helium-3 and options for increasing the supply; current and projected uses of helium-3 and options for reducing the demand; and options for allocating the supply if it continues to fall short of demand.
Date: December 22, 2010
Creator: Shea, Dana A. & Morgan, Daniel
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Publishing Scientific Papers with Potential Security Risks: Issues for Congress

Description: This report describes the underlying controversy, the potential benefits and harms of publishing manuscripts with potential security risks, the actions taken by domestic and international stakeholders, and options that may improve the way research is handled to minimize security concerns.
Date: March 18, 2013
Creator: Gottron, Frank & Shea, Dana A.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The U.S. Science and Engineering Workforce: Recent, Current, and Projected Employment, Wages, and Unemployment

Description: This report uses a modified version of the Standard Occupation Classification (SOC) system to categorize scientists and engineers. The report taxonomy includes six science and engineering (S&E) S&E occupational groups, each composed of closely related detailed occupations.
Date: May 6, 2013
Creator: Sargent Jr, John F.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Science, Technology, and American Diplomacy: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides an overview of current U.S. international S&T policy; describes the role of the Department of State (DOS), the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), and other federal agencies; and discusses possible policy options for Congress. It focuses on international science and technology diplomacy, where American leadership in science and technology is used as a diplomatic tool to enhance another country's development and to improve understanding by other nations of U.S. values and ways of doing business.
Date: May 22, 2008
Creator: Stine, Deborah D.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

America COMPETES Acts: FY2008-FY2013 Funding Tables

Description: This report discusses major provisions of the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010 that are set to expire in 2013. This report has been updated to reflect FY2013 enacted funding levels--as contained in P.L. 113- 6 (Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2013)--for specified COMPETES related accounts.
Date: April 15, 2013
Creator: Gonzalez, Heather B.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Changes in the Purposes and Frequency of Authorizations of Appropriations

Description: This report discusses general principles in how the language concerning the purposes and frequency of authorizations of appropriations has changed over the past century. These general principles are illustrated through case studies on the authorizations of appropriations that were enacted during this period for three agencies: the National Science Foundation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the Peace Corps.
Date: January 16, 2015
Creator: Tollestrup, Jessica
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Background and Legal Issues Related to Stem Cell Research

Description: In August 2001, President Bush announced that federal funds, with certain restrictions, may be used to conduct research on human embryonic stem cells. Federal research is limited to “the more than 60” existing stem cell lines that were derived (1) with the informed consent of the donors; (2) from excess embryos created solely for reproductive purposes; and (3) without any financial inducements to the donors. No federal funds may be used for the derivation or use of stem cell lines derived from newly destroyed embryos; the creation of any human embryos for research purposes; or cloning of human embryos for any purposes.
Date: July 13, 2006
Creator: Shimabukuro, Jon O
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Background and Legal Issues Related to Stem Cell Research

Description: In August 2001, President Bush announced that federal funds, with certain restrictions, may be used to conduct research on human embryonic stem cells. This report explains the limitations on this research, as well as corresponding and related legislation to the issue of embryonic stem cell research, including the Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act of 2005.
Date: July 13, 2006
Creator: Shimabukuro, Jon O.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Background and Legal Issues Related to Stem Cell Research

Description: In August 2001, President Bush announced that federal funds, with certain restrictions, may be used to conduct research on human embryonic stem cells. Federal research is limited to “the more than 60” existing stem cell lines that were derived (1) with the informed consent of the donors; (2) from excess embryos created solely for reproductive purposes; and (3) without any financial inducements to the donors. No federal funds may be used for the derivation or use of stem cell lines derived from newly destroyed embryos; the creation of any human embryos for research purposes; or cloning of human embryos for any purposes.
Date: June 12, 2002
Creator: Duffy, Diane T
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Asset Distribution of Taxable Estates: An Analysis

Description: This report provides data on the distribution of assets in taxable estates that filed returns in 1998. The report also offers a brief overview of the estate and gift tax and "The Death Tax Elimination Act of 2000," which was passed in the 106th Congress and vetoed. This report finds that farm and business assets represent a small share of the total value of taxable estate tax returns filed in 1998. For an overview of estate tax, see CRS Report RL30600, Estate and Gift Taxes: Economic Issues, by Jane G. Gravelle and Steven Maguire. This report will be updated as new data becomes available.
Date: December 7, 2000
Creator: Maguire, Steven
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: Is CAFE Up to Standards?

Description: One of the least controversial provisions of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (P.L. 94-163) established corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards for new passenger cars. This report presents a brief background and analysis regarding the price of crude oil that brought into sharp focus the fuel inefficiency of U.S. automobiles. The report also discusses the previous issues and the most recent developments regarding CAFE.
Date: April 26, 2002
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: Is CAFE Up to Standards?

Description: One of the least controversial provisions of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (P.L. 94-163) established corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards for new passenger cars. This report presents a brief background and analysis regarding the price of crude oil that brought into sharp focus the fuel inefficiency of U.S. automobiles. The report also discusses the previous issues and the most recent developments regarding CAFE.
Date: June 13, 2002
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: Is CAFE Up to Standards?

Description: One of the least controversial provisions of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (P.L. 94-163) established corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards for new passenger cars. This report presents a brief background and analysis regarding the price of crude oil that brought into sharp focus the fuel inefficiency of U.S. automobiles. The report also discusses the previous issues and the most recent developments regarding CAFE.
Date: July 26, 2002
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: Is CAFE Up to Standards?

Description: One of the least controversial provisions of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (P.L. 94-163) established corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards for new passenger cars. This report presents a brief background and analysis regarding the price of crude oil that brought into sharp focus the fuel inefficiency of U.S. automobiles. The report also discusses the previous issues and the most recent developments regarding CAFE.
Date: August 3, 2001
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department