Congressional Research Service Reports - 29 Matching Results

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F-35 Alternate Engine Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: On December 2, 2011, General Electric and Rolls-Royce announced that they were ending development of the F136 alternate engine for the F-35, ending what had been a contentious and long-running battle of funding versus research and development. This report discusses issues of having only one engine supplier for the F-35, as well as funding issues for the program.
Date: January 10, 2012
Creator: Gertler, Jeremiah
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities

Description: In the early 1990s, Congress recognized that several federal agencies had ongoing high performance computing programs, but no central coordinating body existed to ensure long-term coordination and planning. To provide such a framework, Congress passed the High-Performance Computing and Communications Program Act of 1991 to enhance the effectiveness of the various programs. In conjunction with the passage of the act, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy released Grand Challenges: High-Performance Computing and Communications. Current concerns are the role of the federal government in supporting IT R&D and the level of funding to allot to it. This report also looks at federal budgets for the Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program.
Date: January 13, 2012
Creator: Moloney Figliola, Patricia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. National Science Foundation: Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR)

Description: The Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR) of the National Science Foundation (NSF) was authorized by Congress in 1978, partly in response to concerns in Congress and the concerns of some in academia and the scientific community about the geographic distribution of federal research and development (R&D) funds. Some have questioned the length of time states should receive EPSCoR support. It continues to be called an experimental program after 28 years, and observers have noted that no state has yet to graduate, or leave the program. This report discusses current policy involving EPSCoR, as well as budget requests.
Date: January 19, 2012
Creator: Matthews, Christine M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2012

Description: President Obama has requested $147.911 billion for research and development (R&D) in FY2012, a $772 million (0.5%) increase from the FY2010 actual R&D funding level of $147.139 billion. Congress will play a central role in defining the nation's R&D priorities, especially with respect to two overarching issues: the extent to which the federal R&D investment can grow in the context of increased pressure on discretionary spending and how available funding will be prioritized and allocated. Low or negative growth in the overall R&D investment may require movement of resources across disciplines, programs, or agencies to address priorities.
Date: January 26, 2012
Creator: Sargent, John F., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Support for Academic Research

Description: Report that discusses how to address the issue of budget reductions while supporting research conducted at colleges and universities, due to the role of academic research on the economy.
Date: January 26, 2012
Creator: Matthews, Christine M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The President's Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP): Issues for Congress

Description: Congress established the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) through the National Science and Technology Policy, Organization, and Priorities Act of 1976. The act states that “The primary function of the OSTP Director is to provide, within the Executive Office of the President [EOP], advice on the scientific, engineering, and technological aspects of issues that require attention at the highest level of Government.” Issues for Congress to consider regarding OSTP are the nomination of the OSTP director by the President; engagement of OSTP with China; the title, rank, and responsibilities of the OSTP director; OSTP policy foci; OSTP funding and staffing; roles and functions of the OSTP and NSTC; and the status and influence of the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST).
Date: February 10, 2012
Creator: Sargent, John F., Jr. & Shea, Dana A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. National Science Foundation: An Overview

Description: The National Science Foundation (NSF) was created by the National Science Foundation Act of 1950, as amended (P.L.81-507). The NSF has the broad mission of supporting science and engineering in general and funding basic research across many disciplines. The agency provides support for investigator-initiated, merit-reviewed, competitively selected awards, state-of-the-art tools, and instrumentation and facilities. The majority of the research supported by the NSF is conducted at U.S. colleges and universities. The Administration's FY2013 budget request for NSF is $7,373.1 million, 4.8% above the FY2012 estimated level of $7,033.1 million.
Date: March 15, 2012
Creator: Matthews, Christine M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Background, Funding, and Activities

Description: In the early 1990s, Congress recognized that several federal agencies had ongoing high performance computing programs, but no central coordinating body existed to ensure long-term coordination and planning. To provide such a framework, Congress passed the High-Performance Computing and Communications Program Act of 1991 to enhance the effectiveness of the various programs. In conjunction with the passage of the act, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy released Grand Challenges: High-Performance Computing and Communications. Current concerns are the role of the federal government in supporting IT R&D and the level of funding to allot to it. This report also looks at federal budgets for the Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program.
Date: March 27, 2012
Creator: Figliola, Patricia Moloney
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. National Science Foundation: Major Research Equipment and Facility Construction

Description: The Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction (MREFC) account of the National Science Foundation (NSF) supports the acquisition and construction of major research facilities and equipment that are to extend the boundaries of science, engineering, and technology. The Administration's FY2013 budget request for the NSF is $7,373.1 million, a 4.8% increase over the FY2012 estimated level of $7,033.1 million. Included in the request total is $196.2 million for MREFC, slightly below the FY2012 estimate of $197.1 million.
Date: April 4, 2012
Creator: Matthews, Christine M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: The Coast Guard's proposed FY2013 budget includes $8 million in acquisition funding to initiate survey and design activities for a new polar icebreaker. The Coast Guard's Five Year Capital Investment Plan includes an additional $852 million in FY2014-FY2017 for acquiring the ship. The Coast Guard anticipates awarding a construction contract for the ship "within the next five years" and taking delivery on the ship "within a decade." The project to design and build a polar icebreaker is a new acquisition project initiated in the FY2013 budget.
Date: April 6, 2012
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nanotechnology: A Policy Primer

Description: Nanoscale science, engineering, and technology-commonly referred to collectively as nanotechnology-is believed by many to offer extraordinary economic and societal benefits. Congress has demonstrated continuing support for nanotechnology and has directed its attention primarily to three topics that may affect the realization of this hoped for potential: federal research and development (R&D) in nanotechnology; U.S. competitiveness; and environmental, health, and safety (EHS) concerns. This report provides an overview of these topics-which are discussed in more detail in other CRS reports-and two others: nanomanufacturing and public understanding of and attitudes toward nanotechnology.
Date: April 13, 2012
Creator: Sargent, John F., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rare Earth Elements: The Global Supply Chain

Description: This report provides a discussion on the major issues and concerns of the global supply chain for rare earth elements, their major end uses, and legislative and other policy proposals that Congress may consider to improve the U.S. rare earth position. The concentration of production of rare earth elements (REEs) outside the United States raises the important issue of supply vulnerability, since they are used for new energy technologies and national security applications.
Date: June 8, 2012
Creator: Humphries, Marc
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report is written in response to the Coast Guard's budget request for a new polar ice breaker, of which the Coast Guard currently has none in operation. Polar icebreakers perform a variety of missions supporting U.S. interests in polar regions. Issues for Congress include what to do with decommissioned ice breakers, the impact of having no ice breakers, how to budget for new ice breakers, and how future ice breakers should be obtained.
Date: June 14, 2012
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Obama Administration’s Proposal to Establish a National Network for Manufacturing Innovation

Description: This report discusses the proposed creation of the National Network for Manufacturing Innovation (NNMI), which would help accelerate innovation and support manufacturing technology commercialization. It includes an overview of the topic as well as discussion on the Administration's proposal, preliminary activities, legislative status, and issues for consideration.
Date: July 25, 2012
Creator: Sargent, John F., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education: A Primer

Description: The term "STEM education" refers to teaching and learning in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, including educational activities across all grade levels—from pre-school to post-doctorate—in both formal and informal settings. This report is intended to serve as a primer for outlining existing STEM education policy issues and programs. It includes assessments of the federal STEM education effort and the condition of STEM education in the United States, as well as an analysis of several of the policy issues central to the contemporary federal conversation about STEM education.
Date: August 1, 2012
Creator: Gonzalez, Heather B. & Kuenzi, Jeffrey J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Obama Administration's Proposal to Establish a National Network for Manufacturing Innovation

Description: Report that discusses the proposed creation of the National Network for Manufacturing Innovation (NNMI), which would help accelerate innovation and support manufacturing technology commercialization. It includes an overview of the topic as well as discussion on the Administration's proposal, preliminary activities, legislative status, and issues for consideration.
Date: August 28, 2012
Creator: Sargent, John F., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department