Congressional Research Service Reports - 27 Matching Results

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Cooperative R&D: Federal Efforts to Promote Industrial Competitiveness

Description: In response to the foreign challenge in the global marketplace, the United States Congress has explored ways to stimulate technological advancement in the private sector. The government has supported various efforts to promote cooperative research and development activities among industry, universities, and the federal R&D establishment designed to increase the competitiveness of American industry and to encourage the generation of new products, processes, and services. Among the issues before Congress are whether joint ventures contribute to industrial competitiveness and what role, if any, the government has in facilitating such arrangements.
Date: December 2, 1996
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Countries of the World and International Organizations: Sources of Information

Description: This report provides a selection of materials for locating information on foreign countries and international organizations. In the general information section, it presents sources giving an overview of politics, economics, and recent history. A specialized information section cites sources on human rights, immigration, international organizations, military strengths, terrorism, and other topics. Included are titles of some of the most frequently consulted bibliographic sources that are available for use in many libraries. Electronic information on foreign countries is also provided, via the Internet, by agencies of the federal government, international organizations, and related sources. Included is a list of foreign chanceries located in Washington, D.C.
Date: May 2, 2001
Creator: Salazar, Barbara A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: The CAFE Standards

Description: One of the least controversial provisions of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (P.L. 94-163) established corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards for new passenger cars. This report presents a brief background and analysis regarding the price of crude oil that brought into sharp focus the fuel inefficiency of U.S. automobiles. The report also discusses the previous issues and the most recent developments regarding CAFE.
Date: December 2, 2002
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Countries of the World and International Organizations: Sources of Information

Description: This report provides a selection of materials for locating information on foreign countries and international organizations. In the general information section, it presents sources giving an overview of politics, economics, and recent history. A specialized information section cites sources on human rights, immigration, international organizations, military strengths, terrorism, and other topics. Included are titles of some of the most frequently consulted bibliographic sources that are available for use in many libraries. Electronic information on foreign countries is also provided, via the Internet, by agencies of the federal government, international organizations, and related sources. Included is a list of foreign chanceries located in Washington, DC.
Date: January 2, 2003
Creator: Salazar, Barbara A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: The CAFE Standards

Description: One of the least controversial provisions of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (P.L. 94-163) established corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards for new passenger cars. This report presents a brief background and analysis regarding the price of crude oil that brought into sharp focus the fuel inefficiency of U.S. automobiles. The report also discusses the previous issues and the most recent developments regarding CAFE.
Date: April 2, 2003
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

"Sensitive But Unclassified" and Other Federal Security Controls on Scientific and Technical Information: History and Current Controversy

Description: This report (1) summarizes provisions of several laws and regulations, including the Patent Law, the Atomic Energy Act, International Traffic in Arms Control regulations, the USA PATRIOT Act (P.L. 107-56), the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-188), and the Homeland Security Act (P.L. 107-296), that permit the federal government to restrict disclosure of scientific and technical information that could harm national security; (2) describes the development of federal controls on “sensitive but unclassified” (SBU) scientific and technical information; (3) summarizes current controversies about White House policy on “Sensitive But Unclassified Information,” and “Sensitive Homeland Security Information” (SHSI) issued in March 2002; and (4) identifies controversial issues which might affect the development of Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and agency guidelines for sensitive unclassified information, which are expected to be released during 2003.
Date: April 2, 2003
Creator: Knezo, Genevieve J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

"Sensitive But Unclassified" and Other Federal Security Controls on Scientific and Technical Information: History and Current Controversy

Description: This report (1) summarizes provisions of several laws and regulations, including the Patent Law, the Atomic Energy Act, International Traffic in Arms Control regulations, the USA PATRIOT Act (P.L. 107-56), the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-188), and the Homeland SecurityAct (P.L. 107-296), that permit the federal government to restrict disclosure of scientific and technical information that could harm national security; (2) describes the development of federal controls on “sensitive but unclassified” (SBU) scientific and technical information; (3) summarizes current controversies about White House policy on “Sensitive But Unclassified Information,” and “Sensitive Homeland Security Information” (SHSI) issued in March 2002; and (4) identifies controversial issues which might affect the development of Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and agency guidelines for sensitive unclassified information, which are expected to be released during 2003.
Date: July 2, 2003
Creator: Knezo, Genevieve J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Balancing Scientific Publication and National Security Concerns: Issues for Congress

Description: There is a lack of consensus regarding the best method of balancing scientific publishing and national security. The current federal policy, as described in National Security Decision Directive 189, is that fundamental research should remain unrestricted and that in the rare case where it is necessary to restrict such information, classification is the appropriate vehicle to do so. Other mechanisms restrict international information flow, where Export Administration Regulations (EAR) and International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) control export of items and technical information on specific lists. Both EAR and ITAR contain a fundamental research exclusion, but this exclusion is lost if prepublication review of research results for sensitive information occurs.
Date: February 2, 2004
Creator: Shea, Dana A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2005

Description: This report discusses federal research and development (R&D) funding for FY2005. The Bush Administration requested $131.9 billion in R&D funding for FY2005. This was $5.9 billion above the estimated $126 billion that was appropriated for federal R&D in FY2004.
Date: February 2, 2005
Creator: Davey, Michael E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Funding Issues and Activities

Description: This report discusses federal funding for IT research and development. Proponents assert that federal support of IT R&D has produced positive outcomes for the country and played a crucial role in supporting long-term research into fundamental aspects of computing. Critics assert that the government, through its funding mechanisms, may be picking “winners and losers” in technological development, a role more properly residing with the private sector.
Date: May 2, 2005
Creator: Moloney Figliola, Patricia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Balancing Scientific Publication and National Security Concerns: Issues for Congress

Description: There is a lack of consensus regarding the best method of balancing scientific publishing and national security. The current federal policy, as described in National Security Decision Directive 189, is that fundamental research should remain unrestricted and that in the rare case where it is necessary to restrict such information, classification is the appropriate vehicle to do so. Other mechanisms restrict international information flow, where Export Administration Regulations (EAR) and International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) control export of items and technical information on specific lists. Both EAR and ITAR contain a fundamental research exclusion, but this exclusion is lost if prepublication review of research results for sensitive information occurs.
Date: February 2, 2006
Creator: Shea, Dana A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2007

Description: This report discusses federal research and development (R&D) funding. As in the recent past, the FY2007 increase over the FY2006 estimated funding levels is due to significant funding increases in the Department of Defense (DOD) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) space vehicles development program.
Date: May 2, 2006
Creator: Davey, Michael E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Technology Innovation Program

Description: This report discusses the Technology Innovation Program (TIP) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), which is designed "to support, promote, and accelerate innovation in the United States through high-risk, high-reward research in areas of critical national need," according to the authorizing legislation. Grants are provided to small and medium-sized firms for individual projects or joint ventures with other research organizations.
Date: March 2, 2009
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2010 Appropriations

Description: This report provides an overview of actions taken by Congress to provide FY2011 appropriations for Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies (CJS). It also provides an overview of FY2010 appropriations for agencies and bureaus funded under the CJS bill.
Date: October 2, 2009
Creator: James, Nathan; Gonzales, Oscar R. & Williams, Jennifer D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nanotechnology: A Policy Primer

Description: Nanoscale science, engineering and technology--commonly referred to collectively as nanotechnology--is believed by many to offer extraordinary economic and societal benefits. Congress has demonstrated continuing support for nanotechnology and has directed its attention primarily to three topics that may affect the realization of this hoped for potential: federal research and development (R&D) in nanotechnology; U.S. competitiveness; and environmental, health, and safety (EHS) concerns. This report provides an overview of these topics--which are discussed in more detail in other CRS reports--and two others: nanomanufacturing and public understanding of and attitudes toward nanotechnology.
Date: June 2, 2010
Creator: Sargent, John F., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department