Congressional Research Service Reports - 89 Matching Results

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Religion and the Workplace: Legal Analysis of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 as It Applies to Religion and Religious Organizations

Description: This report reviews the scope of Title VII as it applies to religion and religious organizations and the requirements of the anti-discrimination protections and the accommodations provision. It also analyzes the exemptions available to religious organizations for the non-discrimination rules.
Date: January 20, 2011
Creator: Brougher, Cynthia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Faith-Based Organizations and Their Relationship with State and Local Governments: Analysis of Recent Initiatives

Description: This report discusses federal, state, and local government funding for faith-based organizations (FBOs) to provide services to needy citizens. It provides an overview of several selected issues including the effectiveness of FBOs, their accountability for results, and the working relationship that FBOs have at various levels of government.
Date: January 23, 2003
Creator: Canada, Ben
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Muslims in Europe: Integration Policies in Selected Countries

Description: This report examines the integration of Muslims into the United Kingdom, France, Germany, and Spain. It also analyzes policies at the European Union (EU) level that affect Muslim populations. However, key policies relating to integrating Muslims into society — including citizenship laws, education, treatment of religious institutions, and anti-discrimination measures — largely lie with individual governments.
Date: November 18, 2005
Creator: Gallis, Paul E.; Archick, Kristin; Miko, Francis T & Woehrel, Steven
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran: Ethnic and Religious Minorities

Description: Iran is home to approximately 70.5 million people who are ethnically, religiously, and linguistically diverse. This report discusses these minorities, their treatment under the Islamic regime, and the reactions of international rights groups.
Date: November 25, 2008
Creator: Hassan, Hussein D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Islamic Finance: Overview and Policy Concerns

Description: This report discusses Islamic finance, which is based on principles of shariah, or "Islamic law." Major financial principles of shariah are a ban on interest, a ban on contractual uncertainty, adherence to risk-sharing and profit-sharing, promotion of ethical investments that enhance society, and asset-backing. While the Islamic finance industry represents a fraction of the global finance market, it has grown at double-digit rates in recent years.
Date: November 30, 2010
Creator: Ilias, Shayerah
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Islamic Finance: Overview and Policy Concerns

Description: This report discusses Islamic finance, which is based on principles of shariah, or "Islamic law." Major financial principles of shariah are a ban on interest, a ban on contractual uncertainty, adherence to risk-sharing and profit-sharing, promotion of ethical investments that enhance society, and asset-backing. While the Islamic finance industry represents a fraction of the global finance market, it has grown at double-digit rates in recent years.
Date: February 9, 2009
Creator: Ilias, Shayerah
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Islamic Finance: Overview and Policy Concerns

Description: The international market for Islamic finance has grown between 10% to 15% annually in recent years. Islamic finance historically has been concentrated in the Persian Gulf countries, but has expanded globally to both Muslim and non-Muslim countries. There is a small but growing market for Islamic finance in the United States. Through international and domestic regulatory bodies, there has been effort to standardize regulations in Islamic finance across different countries and financial institutions, although challenges remain. Critics of Islamic finance express concerns about possible ties between Islamic finance and political agendas or terrorist financing and the use of Islamic finance to circumvent U.S. economic sanctions. Proponents argue that Islamic finance presents significant new business opportunities and provides alternate methods for capital formation and economic development.
Date: July 29, 2008
Creator: Ilias, Shayerah
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Afghanistan: Connections to Islamic Movements In Central and South Asia and Southern Russia

Description: After several years of relative peace in Central Asia and southern Russia, Islamic extremist movements have become more active in Russia and in Central and South Asia, threatening stability in the region. Although numerous factors might account for the upsurge in activity, several of these movements appear to have connections to the Islamic fundamentalist Taliban regime in Afghanistan. These linkages raise questions about whether the United States, as part of a broader effort to promote peace and stability in the region, should continue to engage the Taliban regime, or strongly confront it. This report will be updated as events warrant.
Date: December 7, 1999
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Description: This report discusses the relationship between Iraq and Iran in the post-Saddam Hussein era, with particular focus on what Iran's intentions and/or long-term goals may be for increasing its influence in Iraq. The report explores the various strategies that Iran has used to spread its influence throughout Iraq's military and political spheres. The report also addresses the United States' concern over the Iran-Iraq relationship, especially as it concerns armed Shiite factions and U.S. efforts to stabilize Iraq.
Date: January 7, 2009
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Description: This report discusses the relationship between Iraq and Iran in the post-Saddam Hussein era, with particular focus on what Iran's intentions and/or long-term goals may be for increasing its influence in Iraq. The report explores the various strategies that Iran has used to spread its influence throughout Iraq's military and political spheres. The report also addresses the United States' concern over the Iran-Iraq relationship, especially as it concerns armed Shiite factions and U.S. efforts to stabilize Iraq.
Date: June 4, 2009
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Description: This report discusses the relationship between Iraq and Iran in the post-Saddam Hussein era, with particular focus on what Iran's intentions and/or long-term goals may be for increasing its influence in Iraq. The report explores the various strategies that Iran has used to spread its influence throughout Iraq's military and political spheres. The report also addresses the United States' concern over the Iran-Iraq relationship, especially as it concerns armed Shiite factions and U.S. efforts to stabilize Iraq.
Date: April 7, 2009
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Description: This report discusses the relationship between Iraq and Iran in the post-Saddam Hussein era, with particular focus on what Iran's intentions and/or long-term goals may be for increasing its influence in Iraq. The report explores the various strategies that Iran has used to spread its influence throughout Iraq's military and political spheres. The report also addresses the United States' concern over the Iran-Iraq relationship, especially as it concerns armed Shiite factions and U.S. efforts to stabilize Iraq.
Date: February 13, 2009
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Description: Iran is materially assisting all major Shiite Muslim political factions in Iraq, most of which have longstanding ideological, political, and religious ties to Tehran, and their armed militias. The Administration notes growing involvement by Tehran in actively directing training, and arming Shiite militiamen linked, to varying degrees, to hardline cleric Moqtada Al Sadr. Some analysis goes so far as to see a virtual "proxy war" between the United States and Iran inside Iraq.
Date: May 14, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Description: Iran is materially assisting and attempting to influence, in most cases against the United States, major Shiite Muslim factions in Iraq, most of which have ideological, political, and religious ties to Tehran. The Administration asserts that Tehran is actively directing, training, and arming Shiite militiamen linked, to varying degrees, to hardline anti-U.S. cleric Moqtada Al Sadr. Some analysts see a virtual "proxy war" between the United States and Iran inside Iraq.
Date: June 16, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Description: Iran is materially assisting and influencing major Shiite Muslim factions in Iraq, most of which have ideological, political, and religious ties to Tehran. Among these factions is that of hardline anti-U.S. cleric Moqtada Al Sadr, whose Mahdi Army militia, according to some observers, serves as a proxy force for Tehran against the United States.
Date: July 25, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Description: With a conventional military and weapons of mass destruction (WMD) threat from Saddam Hussein's regime removed, Iran seeks to ensure that Iraq can never again become a threat to Iran, either with or without U.S. forces present in Iraq. By supporting armed Shiite factions, Iran's influence in Iraq has at times hindered U.S. efforts to stabilize Iraq, and has heightened the U.S. threat perception of Iran generally. However, Iran faces difficult choices in Iraq now that its protege Shiite factions, formerly united, are competing and often fighting each other.
Date: October 21, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Description: Iran is materially assisting and influencing major Shiite Muslim factions in Iraq, most of which have ideological, political, and religious ties to Tehran. The Shiite faction of paramount concern to the Administration is that of Moqtada Al Sadr, whose Mahdi Army militia has periodically battled U.S. and Iraqi government forces, although it is currently relatively quiescent.
Date: September 17, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Description: Iran is materially assisting and influencing major Shiite Muslim factions in Iraq, most of which have ideological, political, and religious ties to Tehran. Among these factions is that of hardline anti-U.S. cleric Moqtada Al Sadr, whose Mahdi Army militia, according to some observers, serves as a proxy force for Tehran against the United States.
Date: August 22, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

Description: Iraq's current government, the result of a U.S.-supported election process designed to produce democracy, is instead a sectarian government incapable of reconciliation. The Administration says that the passage of some key laws represents progress on national reconciliation, and is a result of the U.S. "troop surge." Others say that combat among Shiite groups since March 2008, possibly motivated by provincial elections planned for October 2008, shows that force will not stabilize Iraq.
Date: September 25, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

Description: Iraq's political system, the result of a U.S.-supported election process, continues to be riven by sectarianism and ethnic and factional infighting. The Administration is optimistic that the passage of key laws in 2008, including a law to govern provincial elections to be held in early 2009, will sustain recent reductions in violence.
Date: October 22, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department