Congressional Research Service Reports - 55 Matching Results

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Muslims in Europe: Integration Policies in Selected Countries

Description: This report examines the integration of Muslims into the United Kingdom, France, Germany, and Spain. It also analyzes policies at the European Union (EU) level that affect Muslim populations. However, key policies relating to integrating Muslims into society — including citizenship laws, education, treatment of religious institutions, and anti-discrimination measures — largely lie with individual governments.
Date: November 18, 2005
Creator: Gallis, Paul E.; Archick, Kristin; Miko, Francis T & Woehrel, Steven
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Campaign Activity by Churches: Legal Analysis of Houses of Worship Free Speech Restoration Act, H.R. 235 (108th Congress)

Description: Churches and other Internal Revenue Code (IRC) Section 501(c)(3) tax-exempt organizations can lose their tax-exempt status if they participate in a political campaign. The Houses of Worship Free Speech Restoration Act, H.R. 235 (108th Congress) would permit churches to engage in limited types of political campaign activity, in unlimited amounts, without jeopardizing their tax-exempt status. This report provides an overview of current tax and campaign finance law relevant to this legislation, a discussion of how H.R. 235 (108th Congress) would amend current law, and a comparison of H.R. 235 (108th Congress) to H.R. 2357 (107th Congress).
Date: June 16, 2003
Creator: Morris, Marie B. & Whitaker, L. Paige
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Campaign Activity by Churches: Legal Analysis of Houses of Worship Free Speech Restoration Act

Description: Under current law, churches and other IRC § 501(c)(3) tax-exempt organizations are prohibited from engaging in such activity and risk losing their tax-exempt status if they do. While this outcome is rare, it is possible. This report provides an overview of the current tax and campaign finance law relevant to this legislation, a discussion of how each bill would amend current law, and a chart that compares the bills.
Date: June 14, 2005
Creator: Lunder, Erika & Whitaker, L. Paige
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Legal Analysis of Religious Exemptions for Photo Identification Requirements

Description: This report analyzes the legal issues associated with religious exemptions to photo identification laws. Although no lawsuits appear to have challenged federal laws with photo requirements, state photo identification laws have been challenged for several decades.
Date: April 13, 2009
Creator: Brougher, Cynthia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Law of Church and State: Public Aid to Sectarian Schools

Description: This report gives a brief overview of the evolution of the U.S. Supreme Court's interpretation of the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment in regards to sectarian schools at all levels. It analyzes the categories of aid that have been addressed by the Court and also explains which categories have been held to be constitutionally permissible or impermissible, both at the elementary and secondary school level and at the college level. The report also briefly discusses H.R. 1 of the 111th Congress, economic stimulus legislation that includes provisions that would provide assistance to institutions of higher education for modernization, renovation, and repair of facilities.
Date: February 5, 2009
Creator: Brougher, Cynthia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Charitable Choice: Legal and Constitutional Issues

Description: This report provides analysis of a number of factual, civil rights, and constitutional questions that have been raised regarding charitable choice in general. The analysis is generally focused on those provisions enacted as part of the 1996 welfare reform law. More recent charitable choice rules may give rise to the same or similar concerns. Primarily, this report focuses on civil rights concerns that have arisen in the context of charitable choice and First Amendment issues, as well as recent legal developments related to charitable choice.
Date: January 27, 2006
Creator: Welborn, Angie A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq: Reconciliation and Benchmarks

Description: Iraq's current government, the result of a U.S.-supported election process designed to produce democracy, is instead a sectarian government incapable of reconciliation. The Administration says that the passage of some key laws represents progress on national reconciliation, and is a result of the U.S. "troop surge." Others say that combat among Shiite groups since March 2008, possibly motivated by provincial elections planned for October 2008, shows that force will not stabilize Iraq.
Date: May 12, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Islamist Militancy in the Pakistan-Afghanistan Border Region and U.S. Policy

Description: Increasing militant activity in western Pakistan poses three key national security threats: an increased potential for major attacks against the United States itself; a growing threat to Pakistani stability; and a hindrance of U.S. efforts to stabilize Afghanistan. This report addresses this issue at length. It also describes the recent upsurge of militant activity on the Pakistani side of the Pakistan-Afghanistan border, as well as the general political climates of Pakistan and Afghanistan and their relationships with the United States.
Date: November 21, 2008
Creator: Kronstadt, K. Alan & Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Legal Standing Under the First Amendment's Establishment Clause

Description: This report analyzes the constitutional issues associated with standing, specifically related to cases arising under the Establishment Clause. It provides a background on the doctrine of standing, including the U.S. Supreme Court's interpretation of various types of standing, including standing to sue as a citizen, as a taxpayer, and on behalf of another party.
Date: September 15, 2009
Creator: Brougher, Cynthia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Legal Issues Related to Funding for Religious Schools in P.L. 111-5, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

Description: This report will provide a brief overview of the prohibition on the use of funds by institutions of higher education, including proposals considered by the House and Senate before the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA, P.L. 111-5) was enacted. It will also analyze the constitutionality of the distribution of federal money to religious schools in the context of common questions raised by these provisions.
Date: March 5, 2009
Creator: Brougher, Cynthia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq: Reconciliation and Benchmarks

Description: Iraq's current government, the result of a U.S.-supported election process designed to produce democracy, is instead a sectarian government incapable of reconciliation. The Administration says that the passage of some key laws represents progress on national reconciliation, and is a result of the U.S. "troop surge." Others say that combat among Shiite groups since March 2008, possibly motivated by provincial elections planned for October 2008, shows that force will not stabilize Iraq.
Date: June 5, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

Description: Iraq's current government, the result of a U.S.-supported election process designed to produce democracy, is instead a sectarian government incapable of reconciliation. The Administration says that the passage of some key laws represents progress on national reconciliation, and is a result of the U.S. "troop surge." Others say that combat among Shiite groups since March 2008, possibly motivated by provincial elections planned for October 2008, shows that force will not stabilize Iraq.
Date: September 25, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

Description: Iraq's political system, the result of a U.S.-supported election process, continues to be riven by sectarianism and ethnic and factional infighting. The Administration is optimistic that the passage of key laws in 2008, including a law to govern provincial elections to be held in early 2009, will sustain recent reductions in violence.
Date: October 22, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

Description: Iraq's current government, the result of a U.S.-supported election process designed to produce democracy, continues to be riven by sectarianism and factional infighting. However, the Administration says that the passage of some key laws in 2008 represents major progress on national reconciliation and that planned provincial elections will help heal remaining communal rifts.
Date: June 24, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

Description: Iraq's political system, the result of a U.S.-supported election process, continues to be riven by sectarianism and ethnic and factional infighting. The Administration is optimistic that the passage of key laws in 2008, including a law to govern provincial elections to be held in early 2009, will sustain recent reductions in violence.
Date: November 21, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department