Congressional Research Service Reports - 89 Matching Results

Search Results

The Islamic Traditions of Wahhabism and Salafiyya

Description: The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and subsequent discussions of religious extremism have called attention to Islamic puritanical movements known as Wahhabism and Salafiyya. Al Qaeda leaders and their ideological supporters have advocated a violent message that some suggest is an extremist interpretation of this line of puritanical Islam. Other observers have accused Saudi Arabia, the center of Wahhabism, of having disseminated a religion that promotes hatred and violence, targeting the United States and its allies. Saudi officials strenuously deny these allegations. This report provides a background on Wahhabism and its relationship to active terrorist groups; it also summarizes recent charges against Wahhabism and responses, including the findings of the final report of the 9/11 Commission and relevant legislation in the 110th Congress.
Date: January 17, 2007
Creator: Blanchard, Christopher M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Islamic Finance: Overview and Policy Concerns

Description: The international market for Islamic finance has grown between 10% to 15% annually in recent years. Islamic finance historically has been concentrated in the Persian Gulf countries, but has expanded globally to both Muslim and non-Muslim countries. There is a small but growing market for Islamic finance in the United States. Through international and domestic regulatory bodies, there has been effort to standardize regulations in Islamic finance across different countries and financial institutions, although challenges remain. Critics of Islamic finance express concerns about possible ties between Islamic finance and political agendas or terrorist financing and the use of Islamic finance to circumvent U.S. economic sanctions. Proponents argue that Islamic finance presents significant new business opportunities and provides alternate methods for capital formation and economic development.
Date: July 29, 2008
Creator: Ilias, Shayerah
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Constitutionality of Including the Phrase "Under God" in the Pledge of Allegiance

Description: On October 14, 2003, the Supreme Court granted certiorari in the appeal regarding the California statute, and on June 14, 2004, the Court reversed the Ninth Circuit’s decision finding that Newdow lacked standing to challenge the school district’s policy in federal court. This report summarizes the facts of the case, the opinions that have been rendered, congressional action, and the appeal to the Supreme Court. It will be updated as circumstances warrant.
Date: June 18, 2004
Creator: Welborn, Angie A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

American Jihadist Terrorism: Combating a Complex Threat

Description: This report describes homegrown violent jihadists and the plots and attacks that have occurred since 9/11. For this report, "homegrown" describes terrorist activity or plots perpetrated within the United States or abroad by American citizens, legal permanent residents, or visitors radicalized largely within the United States. The term "jihadist" describes radicalized individuals using Islam as an ideological and/or religious justification for their belief in the establishment of a global caliphate, or jurisdiction governed by a Muslim civil and religious leader known as a caliph. The term "violent jihadist" characterizes jihadists who have made the jump to illegally supporting, plotting, or directly engaging in violent terrorist activity.
Date: January 23, 2013
Creator: Bjelopera, Jerome P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Islamic Religious Schools, Madrasas: Background

Description: This report provides an overview of madrasas, their role in the Muslim world, and issues related to their alleged links to terrorism. The report also addresses the findings of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (the “9/11 Commission”) and issues relevant to the second session of the 109th Congress.
Date: January 10, 2006
Creator: Blanchard, Christopher M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chaplain of the House: Selection and Related Procedures

Description: House procedures to elect an officer during a Congress differ from those followed at the start of a Congress. A resolution to elect a replacement officer to fill a vacancy during a Congress is privileged and debatable under the hour rule. By statute, the Speaker has authority to appoint a temporary replacement officer, and in some cases, temporary appointments have continued in effect for the remainder of a Congress. This report describes the consultative process that ultimately led to Father Coughlin’s temporary appointment, and related parliamentary issues concerning the selection of House officers.
Date: August 22, 2003
Creator: Rundquist, Paul S. & Beth, Richard S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

American Jihadist Terrorism: Combating a Complex Threat

Description: This report describes homegrown violent jihadists and the plots and attacks that have occurred since 9/11. It also outlines actions underway to build trust and partnership between community groups and government agencies and the tensions that may occur between law enforcement and engagement activities.
Date: February 19, 2014
Creator: Bjelopera, Jerome P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

American Jihadist Terrorism: Combating a Complex Threat

Description: This report describes homegrown violent jihadists and the plots and attacks that have occurred since 9/11. For this report, "homegrown" and "domestic" are terms that describe terrorist activity or plots perpetrated within the United States or abroad by American citizens, legal permanent residents, or visitors radicalized largely within the United States. The report also discusses the radicalization process and the forces driving violent extremist activity. It analyzes post-9/11 domestic jihadist terrorism and describes law enforcement and intelligence efforts to combat terrorism and the challenges associated with those efforts. It also outlines actions underway to build trust and partnership between community groups and government agencies and the tensions that may occur between law enforcement and engagement activities.
Date: September 20, 2013
Creator: Bjelopera, Jerome P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran: Ethnic and Religious Minorities

Description: Iran is home to approximately 70.5 million people who are ethnically, religiously, and linguistically diverse. This report discusses these minorities, their treatment under the Islamic regime, and the reactions of international rights groups.
Date: November 25, 2008
Creator: Hassan, Hussein D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Faith-Based Organizations and Their Relationship with State and Local Governments: Analysis of Recent Initiatives

Description: This report discusses federal, state, and local government funding for faith-based organizations (FBOs) to provide services to needy citizens. It provides an overview of several selected issues including the effectiveness of FBOs, their accountability for results, and the working relationship that FBOs have at various levels of government.
Date: January 23, 2003
Creator: Canada, Ben
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Muslims in Europe: Integration Policies in Selected Countries

Description: This report examines the integration of Muslims into the United Kingdom, France, Germany, and Spain. It also analyzes policies at the European Union (EU) level that affect Muslim populations. However, key policies relating to integrating Muslims into society — including citizenship laws, education, treatment of religious institutions, and anti-discrimination measures — largely lie with individual governments.
Date: November 18, 2005
Creator: Gallis, Paul E.; Archick, Kristin; Miko, Francis T & Woehrel, Steven
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Campaign Activity by Churches: Legal Analysis of Houses of Worship Free Speech Restoration Act, H.R. 235 (108th Congress)

Description: Churches and other Internal Revenue Code (IRC) Section 501(c)(3) tax-exempt organizations can lose their tax-exempt status if they participate in a political campaign. The Houses of Worship Free Speech Restoration Act, H.R. 235 (108th Congress) would permit churches to engage in limited types of political campaign activity, in unlimited amounts, without jeopardizing their tax-exempt status. This report provides an overview of current tax and campaign finance law relevant to this legislation, a discussion of how H.R. 235 (108th Congress) would amend current law, and a comparison of H.R. 235 (108th Congress) to H.R. 2357 (107th Congress).
Date: June 16, 2003
Creator: Morris, Marie B. & Whitaker, L. Paige
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Campaign Activity by Churches: Legal Analysis of Houses of Worship Free Speech Restoration Act

Description: Under current law, churches and other IRC § 501(c)(3) tax-exempt organizations are prohibited from engaging in such activity and risk losing their tax-exempt status if they do. While this outcome is rare, it is possible. This report provides an overview of the current tax and campaign finance law relevant to this legislation, a discussion of how each bill would amend current law, and a chart that compares the bills.
Date: June 14, 2005
Creator: Lunder, Erika & Whitaker, L. Paige
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Legal Analysis of Religious Exemptions for Photo Identification Requirements

Description: This report analyzes the legal issues associated with religious exemptions to photo identification laws. Although no lawsuits appear to have challenged federal laws with photo requirements, state photo identification laws have been challenged for several decades.
Date: April 13, 2009
Creator: Brougher, Cynthia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department