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Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights

Description: Iraq's political transition from the dictatorship of Saddam Hussein to a plural polity that encompasses varying sects and ideological and political factions has been accomplished through a series of elections that began in 2005. However, disputes regarding various communities' claims on power and economic resources has contributed to popular frustration and continued political unrest. This report discusses these issues.
Date: April 19, 2011
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq's New Security Forces: The Challenge of Sectarian and Ethnic Influences

Description: This report analyzes the prospects for rebuilding an inclusive Iraqi security force that transcends Iraq’s various ethnic and sectarian communities. U.S. policy makers and Iraqi officials aim to create a unified Iraqi security force; however, the predominately Sunni Arab insurgency has hampered this effort, and many believe that the new Iraqi security agencies will ultimately be composed of mostly Shiite and Kurdish recruits with both communities separately maintaining their own militias.
Date: January 12, 2006
Creator: Sharp, Jeremy M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq: Map Sources

Description: This report identifies online sources for maps of Iraq, including government, library, and organizational websites.
Date: August 5, 2010
Creator: Fischer, Hannah
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Policies on Iraq: CRS Experts

Description: The following table provides access to names and contact information for CRS experts on policy concerns relating to Iraq. Policy areas identified include: U.S. policies on Iraq; governance in Iraq and U.S. military issues; refugees, internally displaced persons, and humanitarian assistance; prospects for Iraq's economy; resource and funding requirements; and the international context--the regional political and security environment.
Date: April 6, 2009
Creator: Blanchard, Christopher M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights

Description: Iraq's political system is increasingly characterized by peaceful competition and formation of cross-sectarian alliances. However, ethnic and sectarian political and sometimes violent infighting continues, often involving the questionable use of key levers of power and legal institutions. This infighting-and the belief that holding political power may mean the difference between life and death for the various political communities-significantly delayed agreement on a new government that was to be selected following the March 7, 2010, national elections for the Council of Representatives (COR, parliament). With U.S. diplomatic help, on November 10, 2010, major ethnic and sectarian factions agreed on a framework for a new government, breaking the long deadlock. The agreement, under which Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki is serving a second term, was implemented when a broad-based cabinet was confirmed on December 21, 2010.
Date: May 18, 2011
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights

Description: This report discusses Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights. Relations among major political factions have worsened substantially since late 2011, threatening Iraq's stability and the perception of the achievements of the long U.S. intervention in Iraq. Sunni Arabs, always fearful that Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki would seek unchallenged power for Shiite factions allied with him, accuse him of an outright power grab as he seeks to purge the highest-ranking Sunni Arabs from government and to cripple attempts by Sunni-inhabited provinces to achieve greater autonomy.
Date: April 19, 2012
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran-Iraq Relations

Description: This report provides background information on Iran's support to armed groups and Iranian political influence. The report discusses the relationship between Iran and Iraq.
Date: August 13, 2010
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq: Politics, Security, and U.S. Policy

Description: This report discusses the current political and social climate of Iraq, specifically in regards to the influence of the U.S. military presence over recent years. This report addresses planned and possible future efforts under the Obama Administration, including the scheduled gradual troops withdrawal.
Date: February 27, 2015
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

Description: This report discusses the current political and social climate of Iraq, specifically in regards to the influence of the U.S. military presence over recent years. This report addresses planned and possible future efforts under the Obama Administration, including the scheduled gradual troops withdrawal. Some U.S. officials believe that a U.S. military presence is needed beyond the scheduled August 31, 2010 date, by which point all U.S. troops will have been withdrawn. This report also discusses the continued tensions between various Iraqi sociocultural groups.
Date: June 8, 2009
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

Description: The Obama Administration is facing a security environment in Iraq vastly improved over that which prevailed during 2005-2007, although still not completely peaceful or without potential to deteriorate significantly. Some U.S. officials believe that further U.S. military presence might be needed beyond the projected 2011 withdrawal date, and that political disputes among Iraqi factions could escalate and reignite civil conflict in the absence of a U.S. presence. This report discusses these issues in detail, as well as the factors that have contributed to the planned withdrawal of U.S. troops, including mounting casualties and financial costs.
Date: July 8, 2009
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

Description: Much of the debate over U.S. policy toward Iran has centered on the nature of the current regime; some believe that Iran, a country of about 70 million people, is a threat to U.S. interests because hardliners in Iran's regime dominate and set a policy direction intended to challenge U.S. influence and allies in the region. President George W. Bush, in his January 29, 2002, State of the Union message, labeled Iran part of an "axis of evil" along with Iraq and North Korea.
Date: September 22, 2010
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

Description: Iraq's political system, the result of a U.S.-supported election process, is increasingly characterized by peaceful competition rather than violence, but sectarianism and ethnic and factional infighting continue to simmer. This report discusses the current state of Iraq, concentrating primarily on the actions of Iraqi Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki, efforts underway to combat sectarian violence, and the projected U.S. troop withdrawal by August 2010.
Date: June 29, 2009
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

Description: Iraq's political system, the result of a U.S.-supported election process, has been increasingly characterized by peaceful competition, as well as by attempts to form cross-sectarian alliances. However, ethnic and factional infighting continues, sometimes involving the questionable use of key levers of power and legal institutions. This report discusses the current political climate of Iraq and also explores speculations as to what will happen after U.S. troops completely withdraw from the region at the end of 2011.
Date: October 4, 2010
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

Description: Iraq's political system, the result of a U.S.-supported election process, is increasingly characterized by peaceful competition rather than violence, but sectarianism and ethnic and factional infighting continue to simmer. This report discusses the current state of Iraq, concentrating primarily on the actions of Iraqi Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki, efforts underway to combat sectarian violence, and the projected U.S. troop withdrawal by August 2010.
Date: November 16, 2010
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

Description: This report discusses the state of the Kurdish-inhabited region of northern Iraq, which has been fairly peaceful since the fall of Saddam Hussein; however, the region is also home to friction with Christian and other minorities, with Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki and other Arab leaders of Iraq, and with neighboring Turkey and Iran. The report also addresses other general political issues and tensions in the Kurdish region, and how said tensions might affect and be affected by the projected U.S. drawdown of U.S. forces in Iraq between now and August 2010.
Date: June 3, 2009
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

Description: This report discusses the current political and social climate of Iraq, specifically in regards to the influence of the U.S. military presence over recent years. This report addresses planned and possible future efforts under the Obama Administration, including the scheduled gradual troops withdrawal.
Date: March 2, 2009
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

Description: This report discusses the current political and social climate of Iraq, specifically in regards to the influence of the U.S. military presence over recent years. This report addresses planned and possible future efforts under the Obama Administration, including the scheduled gradual troops withdrawal.
Date: May 7, 2009
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

Description: Operation Iraqi Freedom succeeded in overthrowing Saddam Hussein, but Iraq remains unstable because of Sunni Arab resentment and a related insurgency, now compounded by Sunni-Shiite violence that some believe is a civil war. This report discusses the background of the issue and examines several security challenges, response, and other policy options for the U.S.
Date: March 29, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

Description: Operation Iraqi Freedom succeeded in overthrowing Saddam Hussein, but Iraq remains unstable because of Sunni Arab resentment and a related insurgency, now compounded by Sunni-Shiite violence that some believe is a civil war. This report discusses the background of the issue and examines several security challenges, response, and other policy options for the U.S.
Date: August 30, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

Description: Operation Iraqi Freedom succeeded in overthrowing Saddam Hussein, but Iraq remains unstable because of Sunni Arab resentment and a related insurgency, compounded by burgeoning sectarian violence. According to its November 30, 2005, “Strategy for Victory,” the Bush Administration indicates that U.S. forces will remain in Iraq until the country is able to provide for its own security and does not serve as a host for radical Islamic terrorists. This report discusses the background of the issue and examines several security challenges, response, and other policy options for the U.S.
Date: May 16, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq: U.S. Regime Change Efforts and Post-Saddam Governance

Description: Operation Iraqi Freedom succeeded in overthrowing Saddam Hussein, but Iraq remains violent and unstable because of Sunni Arab resentment and a related insurgency, as well as increasing sectarian violence. According to its November 30, 2005, “Strategy for Victory,” the Bush Administration indicates that U.S. forces will remain in Iraq until the country is able to provide for its own security and does not serve as a host for radical Islamic terrorists. This report discusses the background of the issue and examines several security challenges, response, and other policy options for the U.S.
Date: March 7, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

Description: Operation Iraqi Freedom succeeded in overthrowing Saddam Hussein, but Iraq remains unstable because of Sunni Arab resentment and a related insurgency, compounded by burgeoning Sunni-Shiite violence. According to its November 30, 2005, “Strategy for Victory,” the Bush Administration indicates that U.S. forces will remain in Iraq until the country is able to provide for its own security. This report discusses security challenges, responses, and policy options.
Date: August 2, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department