Congressional Research Service Reports - 543 Matching Results

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Pandemic Flu and Medical Biodefense Countermeasure Liability Limitation
This report analyzes Division C of the Department of Defense Emergency Supplemental Appropriations, P.L. 109-148, which was signed into law on December 30, 2005, and which limits liability with respect to pandemic flu and other public health countermeasures.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Global Health Programs: FY2001-FY2011
This report explains the role the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) plays in U.S. global health assistance, highlights how much the agency has spent on global health efforts from FY2001 to FY2010, and discusses how funding to each of its programs has changed during this period.
Health Care Reform: An Introduction
This report provides an introduction to health care reform. It focuses on the three predominant concerns just mentioned--coverage, cost and spending, and quality--and some of the legislative issues within which they likely will be debated, including the scope of reform (particularly whether Medicare and Medicaid should be included); the choice between public and private coverage; whether employment-based insurance should be strengthened, weakened, or left alone; and what role states might play.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Global Health Programs: FY2001-FY2010
This report explains the role the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) plays in U.S. global health assistance, highlights how much the agency has spent on global health efforts from FY2001 to FY2010, and discusses how funding to each of its programs changed during this period.
The Role of the Department of Defense During A Flu Pandemic
This report focuses on the role of the Department of Defense (DOD) in supporting the nation's domestic response effort to a flu pandemic, although it will also touch on DOD's international role.
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV): World Health Organization Responses
This report discusses responses to the recent outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which has spread to more than a dozen countries.
Direct-to-Consumer Advertising of Prescription Drugs
This report describes the current status of direct-to-consumer (DTC) drug advertising; analyzes issues surrounding it; and discusses potential options for Congress.
Medicare Physician Payment Updates and the Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) System
This report provides a background on the Medicare fee schedule, the SGR system and the annual updates, and discusses recent proposals to address this issue.
Suicide Prevention Efforts of the Veterans Health Administration
This report discusses seven areas of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) suicide prevention interventions: easy access to care, education, screening and treatment, limited access to lethal means, suicide hotline, media restrictions, and suicide prevention coordinators.
Progress in Combating Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs): U.S. and Global Efforts from FY2006 to FY2013
This report discusses the prevalence of "neglected tropical diseases" (NTDs), U.S. and global actions to address them, and options the 113th Congress might consider.
Suicide Prevention Efforts of the Veterans Health Administration
Responsibility for prevention of veteran suicide lies primarily with the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), within the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). The VHA Strategic Plan for Suicide Prevention is based on a public health framework, which has three major components: (1) surveillance, (2) risk and protective factors, and (3) prevention interventions. This report identifies challenges the VHA faces in each component of suicide prevention and discusses potential issues for Congress.
Stem Cell Research
This report provides background on the research and potential applications of research that uses embryonic and adult stem cells. It also provides information about the current federal and state regulatory landscape, related Congressional and international actions, and relevant ethical concerns.
Medical Malpractice Liability Reform: H.R. 5, 109th Congress
This report discusses H.R. 5, which would preempt state law regarding some aspects of medical malpractice liability and liability for defective medical products, including drugs. The legislation would among other things, place caps on noneconomic and punitive damages (in states that have not enacted and do not enact caps), eliminate joint and several liability, modify the collateral source rule, limit lawyers' contingent fees, enact a federal statute of limitations, and provide for periodic payment of future damages.
The Veterans Health Administration and Medical Education: A Fact Sheet
This report supplies facts about the Veterans Health Administration and its medical education. It describes the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and its involvement in the medical training of health care professionals. The report also gives details on the VA's academic affiliations, its funding of physician training, and its ongoing graduate medical education (GME) expansion. Figure 1 on page 3 shows the amount the VA spent on education and training from FY2010 to FY2015.
The FDA Medical Device User Fee Program: MDUFA IV Reauthorization
This report describes current law regarding medical device user fees, the impact of Medical Device User Fee and Modernization Act (MDUFMA) on Federal Drug Administration (FDA) review time of various medical device applications, and the agency's medical device program budget.
Background and Legal Issues Related to Stem Cell Research
This report discusses issues regarding stem cell research. With certain restrictions, the President has announced that federal funds may be used to conduct research on human embryonic stem cells. Federal research is limited to "the more than 60" existing stem cell lines that were derived (1) with the informed consent of the donors; (2) from excess embryos created solely for reproductive purposes; and (3) without any financial inducements to the donors. No federal funds will be used for the derivation or use of stem cell lines derived from newly destroyed embryos; the creation of any human embryos for research purposes; or cloning of human embryos for any purposes.
Stem Cell Research
This report provides background on the research and potential applications of research that uses embryonic and adult stem cells. It also provides information about the current federal and state regulatory landscape, related Congressional and international actions, and relevant ethical concerns.
Regulation of Clinical Tests: In Vitro Diagnostic (IVD) Devices, Laboratory Developed Tests (LDTs), and Genetic Tests
In vitro diagnostic (IVD) devices are used in the analysis of human samples, such as blood or tissue, to provide information in making health care decisions. Examples of IVDs include pregnancy test kits or blood glucose tests for home use; laboratory tests for infectious disease, such as HIV or hepatitis, and routine blood tests, such as cholesterol and anemia; and tests for various genetic diseases or conditions. More recently, a specific type of diagnostic test--called a companion diagnostic--has been developed that may be used to select the best therapy, at the right dose, at the correct time for a particular patient; this is often referred to as personalized or precision medicine. This report provides an overview of federal regulation of IVDs by FDA, through the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act (FFDCA) and the Public Health Service Act (PHSA), and by CMS, through the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) of 1988.
Medicare Prescription Drug Proposals: Estimates of Aged Beneficiaries Who Fall Below Income Criteria, by State
This report discusses bills related to Medicare benefits, which include additional assistance for low-income beneficiaries. The assistance would have been in the form of reduced, subsidized or eliminated premiums, deductibles and other cost-sharing. Proposals in the 108th Congress will probably also include some of these features for low-income beneficiaries.
Genetic Exceptionalism: Genetic Information and Public Policy
This report provides an overview of the nature of genetic information and its implications for individuals, family, and society. Individuals utilize genetic information to guide health care and other decisions, when possible, and may experience anxiety as a result of genetic test results. Genetic test results for an individual may often be informative for other close family members and thus influence their care decisions. Society must grapple with the effect genetic information may have on our conception of disease, as well as its impact on issues like privacy and equity. The report ends by summarizing the main policy issues involved with a genetic exceptionalist approach to public policy, including defining genetic information; physically separating genetic information from other medical information; unintended disparities between “genetic” and “nongenetic” disease; and the effect of legislation on participation in genetic research, on uptake of genetic technology and on the delivery of high quality health care.
Influenza Antiviral Drugs and Patent Law Issues
This report examines the role that intellectual property rights play in affecting the availability of a patented drug such as Tamiflu during public health crises. The report also explains one legal mechanism for increasing a patented drug’s production without the patent holder’s consent: governments may abrogate a pharmaceutical company’s patent rights by issuing compulsory licenses to other drug companies to manufacture generic versions of the drug.
The 2009 Influenza Pandemic: U.S. Responses to Global Human Cases
This report discusses the April 2009 outbreak of the influenza strain known as H1N1, or commonly, swine influenza. This report describes the distribution of the virus and the statistics of affected areas, as well as international and U.S. efforts to treat infected persons, respond to outbreaks in various countries (such as Mexico and other Latin American nations), and prepare for a possible influenza pandemic.
The 2009 Influenza Pandemic: Selected Legal Issues
In late April 2009, human cases of infection with a novel influenza A(H1N1) virus, commonly known as "swine flu," were identified. Since then, the virus has become widespread. It is timely to examine the legal issues surrounding this public health threat. This report provides a brief overview of selected legal issues including emergency measures, civil rights, liability issues, and employment issues.
Iraq: U.S. Casualties
This report consists of a brief table summarizing casualty data compiled by the Department of Defense (DOD), including fatalities during Operation Iraqi Freedom since March 19, 2003, and since May 1, 2003, including statistics on those wounded, but not killed, since March 19, 2003.
Iraq: U.S. Casualties
This report consists of a brief table summarizing casualty data compiled by the Department of Defense (DOD), including fatalities during Operation Iraqi Freedom since March 19, 2003, and since May 1, 2003, including statistics on those wounded, but not killed, since March 19, 2003.
Background and Legal Issues Related to Stem Cell Research
In August 2001, President Bush announced that federal funds, with certain restrictions, may be used to conduct research on human embryonic stem cells. This report explains the limitations on this research, as well as corresponding and related legislation to the issue of embryonic stem cell research, including the Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act of 2005.
Genetic Information: Legal Issues Relating to Discrimination and Privacy
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Genetic Information: Legal Issues Relating to Discrimination and Privacy
No Description Available.
DNA Evidence: Legislative Initiatives in the 106th Congress
DNA evidence is a powerful forensic tool in criminal cases. Its use and capabilities have increased substantially since it was first introduced in the late 1980s. That growth has led to the emergence of the following issues that were considered by the 106th Congress in legislative initiatives: eliminating the nationwide backlog of unanalyzed DNA samples, expanding the kinds of offenders who are profiled, providing opportunities for post-conviction testing of DNA evidence, and continuing development of forensic science capabilities. This report discusses those and related issues and the legislation proposed and enacted to address them. It begins by describing provisions in prior federal law and then discusses issues and the legislation proposed, including the enacted DNA Analysis Backlog Elimination Act of 2000 (H.R. 4640, which became P.L. 106-546).
Stem Cell Research
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Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods
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Stem Cell Research
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Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods
No Description Available.
Stem Cell Research
No Description Available.
The Hatch-Waxman Act: Proposed Legislative Changes
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The Hatch-Waxman Act: Proposed Legislative Changes Affecting Pharmaceutical Patents
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Importing Prescription Drugs
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Importing Prescription Drugs
No Description Available.
Prescription Drugs: Importation for Personal Use
No Description Available.
Medicare's Skilled Nursing Facility Benefit
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Stem Cell Research
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Stem Cell Research
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The Hatch-Waxman Act: Proposed Legislative Changes Affecting Pharmaceutical Patents
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Importing Prescription Drugs: Objectives, Options, and Outlook
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Tobacco Control: Enforcement and Effectiveness of Federal and State Youth Access Laws
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Genetic Information: Legal Issues Relating to Discrimination and Privacy
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Genetic Information: Legal Issues Relating to Discrimination and Privacy
No Description Available.
Stem Cell Research
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Medical Malpractice Liability Reform: Legal Issues and Fifty-State Survey of Caps on Punitive Damages and Noneconomic Damages
No Description Available.
Medical Malpractice Liability Reform: Legal Issues and Fifty-State Survey of Caps on Punitive Damages and Noneconomic Damages
No Description Available.