Congressional Research Service Reports - 42 Matching Results

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Human Cloning
No Description Available.
AIDS in Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa has been far more severely affected by AIDS than any other part of the world. The United Nations reports that 25.3 million adults and children are infected with the HIV virus in the region, which has about 10% of the world's population but more than 70% of the worldwide total of infected people. This report discusses this issue in detail, including the cause of the African AIDS epidemic, the social and economic consequences, response and treatment, and U.S. policy.
AIDS in Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa has been far more severely affected by AIDS than any other part of the world. The United Nations reports that 25.3 million adults and children are infected with the HIV virus in the region, which has about 10% of the world's population but more than 70% of the worldwide total of infected people. This report discusses this issue in detail, including the cause of the African AIDS epidemic, the social and economic consequences, response and treatment, and U.S. policy.
Cloning: A Select Chronology, 1997-2003
This report includes a selected chronology of the events surrounding and following the cloning of a sheep from a single adult sheep cell by Scottish scientists, which was announced in February 1997. The project was cosponsored by PPL Therapeutics, Edinburgh, Scotland, which has applied for patents for the techniques used. This chronology also addresses subsequent reports of other cloning experiments, including the first one using human cells. Information on presidential actions and legislative activities related to the ethical and moral issues surrounding cloning is provided, as well as relevant Web sites.
The Schiavo Case: Legal Issues
No Description Available.
Regulation of Clinical Tests: In Vitro Diagnostic (IVD) Devices, Laboratory Developed Tests (LDTs), and Genetic Tests
In vitro diagnostic (IVD) devices are used in the analysis of human samples, such as blood or tissue, to provide information in making health care decisions. Examples of IVDs include pregnancy test kits or blood glucose tests for home use; laboratory tests for infectious disease, such as HIV or hepatitis, and routine blood tests, such as cholesterol and anemia; and tests for various genetic diseases or conditions. More recently, a specific type of diagnostic test--called a companion diagnostic--has been developed that may be used to select the best therapy, at the right dose, at the correct time for a particular patient; this is often referred to as personalized or precision medicine. This report provides an overview of federal regulation of IVDs by FDA, through the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act (FFDCA) and the Public Health Service Act (PHSA), and by CMS, through the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) of 1988.
Heroin: Legalization for Medical Use
This report discusses the limited legalization of diacetylmorphine (heroin) for use in the medical treatment of intractable pain. The report attempts to present pros and cons on the issue as well as information on pending legislation. The report also provides a comparison of heroin's analgesic qualities to those of currently available and equivalent pharmaceutical alternatives.
AIDS: An Overview of Issues
This report discusses the many difficult policy dilemmas associated with the AIDS epidemic, including past Congressional funding to support AIDS research and education efforts, strategies for controlling the spread of the AIDS virus, and methods and resources available for the care and treatment of persons with AIDS.
AIDS Funding for Federal Government Programs: FY1981-FY1999
This report provides a synopsis of the budget activity related to AIDS from the discovery of the disease in 1981 through FY1999. Funding for AIDS research, prevention and treatment programs within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) discretionary budget has increased from $200,000 in FY1981 to an estimated $3.85 billion in FY1999.
Stem Cell Research
No Description Available.
Prescription Drug Coverage Under Medicaid
Medicaid is a joint federal-state entitlement program that pays for medical services on behalf of certain groups of low-income persons. It is the third largest social program in the federal budget, exceeded only by Social Security and Medicare and is typically the second largest spending item for states. This report discusses prescription drug policies under the program.
Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods
No Description Available.
Medical Malpractice Liability Reform: Legal Issues and Fifty-State Survey of Caps on Punitive Damages and Noneconomic Damages
No Description Available.
Treatment of Health Care Expenses under the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act
No Description Available.
Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs
This report looks at ways that prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs), which maintain statewide electronic databases of prescriptions dispensed for controlled substances, can help to deter prescription drug misuse.
Veterans Affairs: Presumptive Service Connection and Disability Compensation
The purpose of this report is to examine the very complex and sometimes controversial policy issue of establishing presumptive service connection. The material in it is based in large part on VA’s “Analysis of Presumptions of Service Connection,” and IOM’s “Improving the Presumptive Disability Decision-Making Process for Veterans” reports.
Veterans Medical Care: FY2011 Appropriations
This report discusses the FY2011 appropriations process for funding the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) provides benefits to veterans through three major operating units, including the VHA.
Cancer Research: Selected Federal Spending and Morbidity and Mortality Statistics
This report shows federal spending at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for research on selected cancer sites.
HIV/AIDS International Programs: FY2003 Request and FY2002 Spending
No Description Available.
Military Medical Care Services: Questions and Answers
No Description Available.
Military Medical Care Services: Questions and Answers
No Description Available.
Beneficiary Information and Decision Supports for the Medicare-Endorsed Prescription Drug Discount Card
On December 8, 2003 the President signed into law the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA, P.L. 108-173). This legislation establishes a Medicare prescription drug benefit, effective January 1, 2006. In the interim, the legislation requires the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to establish a temporary program of Medicare-endorsed prescription drug discount cards. This report discusses the objectives and benefits of this legislation.
Science, Technology, and Medicine: Issues Facing the 106th Congress, Second Session
No Description Available.
Standardized Choices: Medigap Lessons for Medicare Part D
No Description Available.
Terrorism: The New Occupational Hazard
No Description Available.
ERISA Regulation of Health Plans: Fact Sheet
The Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA, P.L. 93-406) places the regulation of employee benefit plans (including health plans) primarily under federal jurisdiction for about 124 million people. ERISA’s treatment of health plans is both complicated and confusing. ERISA has been interpreted as dividing health plans into two groups regulated differently under the law: about 54 million people are covered by self-insured plans for which the employer, rather than an insurer, assumes the risk for paying for covered services and about 70 million people are covered by purchased insurance (according to 2000 information from the Census Bureau and the Department of Labor).
Federal Taxation of the Drug Industry and Its Effects on New Drug Development
This report examines the impact of federal taxation on the incentive to invest in new drug development. More specifically, it looks at the provisions in current tax law that affect the performance of the drug industry, compares the industry's federal tax burden with that of other major industries, and assesses the effect of federal taxation on the incentive to invest in new drug development.
Medical Records Privacy: Questions and Answers on the HIPAA Final Rule
This report discusses the issue facing Congress on whether to continue to support the executive branch’s prosecution of medical marijuana patients and their providers, in accordance with marijuana’s status as a Schedule I drug under the Controlled Substances Act, or whether to relax federal marijuana prohibition enough to permit the medical use of botanical cannabis products by seriously ill persons, especially in states that have created medical marijuana programs under state law.
"Don't Ask, Don't Tell:" The Law and Military Policy on Same-Sex Behavior
This report describes the "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" military policy. Under this policy, but not the law, service members are not to be asked about nor allowed to discuss their "same-sex orientation." This report also describes recent efforts by certain Members of Congress to amending this policy.
Title X (Public Health Service Act) Family Planning Program
This report discusses the Family Planning Program, Title X of the Public Health Service Act, through which the federal government provides grants for voluntary family planning services.
Title X (Public Health Service Act) Family Planning Program
This report discusses various issues regarding the Family Planning Program, Title X of the Public Health Service Act. Enacted in 1970, it is the only domestic federal program devoted solely to family planning and related preventive health services.
The Family and Medical Leave Act: Background and U.S. Supreme Court Cases
No Description Available.
Regulation of Plant-Based Pharmaceuticals
No Description Available.
Tobacco Advertising: The Constitutionality of Limiting its Tax Deductibility
No Description Available.
Legal Issues Related to Prescription Drug Sales on the Internet
No Description Available.
Mandatory Vaccinations: Precedent and Current Laws
This report provides an overview of the legal precedent for mandatory vaccination laws, and of state laws that require certain individuals or populations, including school-aged children and health care workers, to be vaccinated against various communicable diseases. Also discussed are state laws providing for mandatory vaccinations during a public health emergency or outbreak of a communicable disease.
International Family Planning Programs: Issues for Congress
This report looks at how the debate over family planning within the U.S. is spilling over to U.S.-funded family planning programs abroad.
Medical Marijuana: Review and Analysis of Federal and State Policies
This report discusses the issue before Congress of whether to continue the federal prosecution of medical marijuana patients and their providers, in accordance with the federal Controlled Substances Act (CSA), or whether to relax federal marijuana prohibition enough to permit the medicinal use of botanical cannabis products when recommended by a physician, especially where permitted under state law.
Legal Implications of the Contagious Disease or Infections Amendment to the Civil Rights Restoration Act, S.557
This report discusses the civil rights restoration act, S. 557, as it passed the House and Senate. This provision would most likely be interpreted as codifying the existing standards relating to section 504 interpretation concerning discrimination against individuals with handicaps.
Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs), Including "Mad Cow Disease": Public Health and Scientific Issues
No Description Available.
Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs), Including "Mad Cow Disease": Public Health and Scientific Issues
No Description Available.
Family Planning: Title X of the Public Health Service Act
This report discusses Title X of the Public Health Service Act provides support for family planning clinics, research related to family planning and population, training of family planning personnel, and development and dissemination of family planning information.