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Cuba: Issues for the 114th Congress

Description: This report is divided into three major sections analyzing Cuba's political and economic environment, U.S. policy, and selected issues in U.S.-Cuban relations.
Date: June 20, 2016
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Department of the Interior's Final Rule on Offshore Well Control

Description: This report discusses regulations regarding blowout preventer systems and well control for oil and gas operations on the U.S. outer continental shelf (81 Fed. Reg. 25887). The regulations aim to reduce the risk of an offshore oil or gas blowout that could jeopardize human safety and harm the environment.
Date: June 16, 2016
Creator: Comay, Laura B.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Open Skies Treaty: Issues in the Current Debate

Description: This report discusses the current debate surrounding the Treaty on Open Skies, which the United States, Canada, and 22 European nations signed on March 24, 1992. The treaty entered into force on January 1, 2002, and now has 34 member states. Each participant must permit unarmed observation aircraft to fly over its entire territory to observe military forces and activities.
Date: June 10, 2016
Creator: Woolf, Amy F.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Legislative Options for Financing Water Infrastructure

Description: This report discusses several options considered by Congress to address the financing needs of local communities for wastewater and drinking water infrastructure projects and to decrease or close the gap between available funds and projected needs.
Date: June 1, 2016
Creator: Copeland, Claudia; Maguire, Steven & Mallett, William J.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides an overview of Arctic-related issues for Congress, and refers readers to more in-depth CRS reports on specific Arctic-related issues. The diminishment of Arctic sea ice has led to increased human activities in the Arctic, and has heightened interest in, and concerns about, the region's future.
Date: May 31, 2016
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran Nuclear Agreement

Description: This report provides background on the agreement negotiated by Iran and six other countries (the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Russia, China, and Germany--collectively known as the P5+1) regarding Iran's nuclear program, and discusses the implications for U.S.-Iran relations.
Date: May 31, 2016
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth & Kerr, Paul K.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy LX(R) Amphibious Ship Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides background information and issues for Congress on maritime territorial and exclusive economic zone (EEZ) disputes in the East China (ECS) and South China Sea (SCS) involving China, with a focus on how these disputes may affect U.S. strategic and policy interests.
Date: May 31, 2016
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intellectual Property Rights Violations: Federal Civil Remedies and Criminal Penalties Related to Copyrights, Trademarks, Patents, and Trade Secrets

Description: This report provides background information and issues for Congress on multiyear procurement (MYP) and block buy contracting (BBC), which are special contracting mechanisms that Congress permits the Department of Defense (DOD) to use for a limited number of defense acquisition programs.
Date: May 27, 2016
Creator: Yeh, Brian T.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Resurgence of Unaccompanied Alien Children?

Description: This report briefly examines the recently-high number of unaccompanied alien children (UAC). In the first seven months of FY2016, apprehensions at the U.S.-Mexico border have approached levels close to what they were in FY2014 when such migration flows reached what were characterized as "crisis" proportions.
Date: May 27, 2016
Creator: Kandel, William A.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cuba: Issues for the 114th Congress

Description: This report is divided into three major sections analyzing Cuba's political and economic environment, U.S. policy, and selected issues in U.S.-Cuban relations.
Date: May 25, 2016
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Comprehensive Addiction and Recovery Act of 2016 (S. 524): Comparison of Senate- and House-Passed Versions

Description: This report discusses selected differences and similarities between the Senate- and House-passed versions of the Comprehensive Addiction and Recovery Act of 2016 (CARA; S. 524), which aims to address the problem of opioid addiction in the United States. The two versions of the bill differ substantially. The scope of the differences may be illustrated by their structures: The Senate bill has 28 sections organized in 8 titles, whereas the House bill has 69 sections organized in 18 titles.
Date: May 23, 2016
Creator: Bagalman, Erin & Sacco, Lisa N.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pay Equity: Legislative and Legal Developments

Description: This report begins by presenting data on earnings for male and female workers and by discussing explanations that have been offered for the differences in earnings. It next discusses the major laws directed at eliminating sex-based wage discrimination as well as relevant federal court cases. The report closes with a description of pay equity legislation that has been considered or enacted by Congress in recent years.
Date: May 20, 2016
Creator: Feder, Jody & Collins, Benjamin
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Framing Spectrum Policy: Legislative Initiatives

Description: This report examines legislative initiatives to address issues regarding radio frequency spectrum management and allocation. Access to radio frequency spectrum is essential to wireless communications. As demand for mobile services increases, from all sectors of society and the economy, so does the need to increase the capacity of wireless networks.
Date: May 18, 2016
Creator: Moore, Linda K.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran Sanctions

Description: This report analyzes U.S. and international sanctions against Iran and provides some examples, based on open sources, of companies and countries that conduct business with Iran.
Date: May 18, 2016
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RICO: A Brief Sketch

Description: This report examines the various elements of federal Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organization (RICO) provisions and discusses constitutional questions pertaining to the law. In spite of its name and origin, RICO is not limited to "mobsters" or members of "organized crime" as those terms are popularly understood. Rather, it covers those activities which Congress felt characterized the conduct of organized crime, no matter who actually engages in them.
Date: May 18, 2016
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

"Sense of" Resolutions and Provisions

Description: This report discusses specific kinds of resolutions by which Congress may formally express opinions about subjects of current national interest through freestanding simple or concurrent resolutions (called generically "sense of the House," "sense of the Senate," or "sense of the Congress" resolutions). These opinions expressing the views of one or both chambers may be included in other legislation upon introduction or subsequently added by amendment. This report identifies the various forms these expressions may take and the procedures governing such actions.
Date: May 16, 2016
Creator: Davis, Christopher M.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Unaccompanied Alien Children: An Overview

Description: This report opens with an analysis of recent unaccompanied alien children (UAC) apprehension data. It then discusses current policy on the treatment, care, and custody of the population, with a description of the responsibilities of each federal agency involved with the population. The report then discusses both administrative and congressional actions to deal with the UAC surge in FY2014 and ongoing action to address possible future surges.
Date: May 11, 2016
Creator: Kandel, William A.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transportation Security: Issues for the 114th Congress

Description: This report examines aviation, transit and passenger rail security, as well as port and maritime security. The difficulty and cost of protecting the transportation sector from attack raises a core question for policymakers, i.e., how much effort and resources to put toward protecting potential targets versus pursuing and fighting terrorists.
Date: May 9, 2016
Creator: Elias, Bart; Peterman, David R. & Frittelli, John
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EPA Policies Concerning Integrated Planning and Affordability of Water Infrastructure

Description: This report examines two recent initiatives by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in which the agency works with states to develop and implement new approaches for water quality goals that will be more cost-effective and address the most pressing water infrastructure problems first. The examples include an integrated planning policy and a framework policy for assessing a community's financial capability to meet objectives and requirements of the Clean Water Act (CWA).
Date: May 2, 2016
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Lifeline Program: Frequently Asked Questions

Description: This report discusses the Federal Lifeline Program established by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 1985. The program was originally designed to assist eligible low-income households to subsidize the monthly service charges incurred for voice telephone usage and was limited to one fixed line per household.
Date: May 2, 2016
Creator: Gilroy, Angele A.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Majority, Concurring, and Dissenting Opinions Authored by Judge Merrick Garland

Description: This report identifies and briefly summarizes each of the more than 350 cases in which Judge Garland has authored a majority, concurring, or dissenting opinion. Arguably, these written opinions provide the greatest insight into Judge Garland's judicial approach, as a judge's vote in a case or decision to join an opinion authored by a colleague may be based upon a number of considerations and may not necessarily represent full agreement with a joined opinion.
Date: May 2, 2016
Creator: Mason, R. C.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Power Plan: Legal Background and Pending Litigation in West Virginia v. EPA

Description: This report provides legal background on the Clean Power Plan rule (CPP) to regulate emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs), its Clean Air Act (CAA) framework under Section 111, and climate-related lawsuits that have preceded the present litigation over the CPP. It then gives an overview of the participants in the current litigation, including two groups of Members of Congress, who have offered briefs in support of the petitioners and the respondents, respectively. This report explains the major events in the litigation as of the date of publication, including the Supreme Court stay, and the likely timetable of events in the near term.
Date: April 27, 2016
Creator: Wyatt, Alexandra M.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Judge Merrick Garland: His Jurisprudence and Potential Impact on the Supreme Court

Description: This report provides an overview of Judge Garland's jurisprudence and discusses what the impact on the Court might be if he, or a judge of a similar judicial approach, were to be confirmed to succeed Justice Scalia. The report begins with his views on two overarching issues -- the role of the judiciary and statutory interpretation -- it then addresses 14 separate areas of law, which are arranged in alphabetical order from "administrative law" to "takings."
Date: April 27, 2016
Creator: Nolan, Andrew; Manuel, Kate M. & Murrill, Brandon J.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department