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Abortion: Judicial and Legislative Control

Description: In 1973 the U.S. Supreme Court held that the Constitution protects a woman's decision whether or not to terminate her pregnancy, Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113, and that a State may not unduly burden the exercise of that fundamental right by regulations that prohibit or substantially limit access to the means of effectuating that decision, Doe v. Bolton, 410 U.S. 179. But rather than settling the issue, the Court's rulings have kindled heated debate and precipitated a variety of governmental actions at the national, State and local levels designed either to nullify the rulings or hinder their effectuation. This brief discusses this ongoing issue, including related legislation and judicial history.
Date: October 13, 1981
Creator: Lewis, Karen J.; Rosenberg, Morton & Porter, Allison I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Abortion: Judicial Control

Description: In 1973 the U.S. Supreme Court held that the Constitution protects a woman's decision whether or not to terminate her pregnancy, Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113, and that a State may not unduly burden the exercise of that fundamental right by regulations that prohibit or substantially limit access to the means of effectuating that decision, Doe v. Bolton, 410 U.S. 179. But rather than settling the issue, the Court's rulings have kindled heated debate and precipitated a variety of governmental actions at the national, State and local levels designed either to nullify the rulings or hinder their effectuation. This brief discusses this ongoing issue, highlighting judicial history and decisions.
Date: March 10, 1988
Creator: Lewis, Karen J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Abortion: Legislative Control

Description: In 1973, the U.S. Supreme Court held that the Constitution protects a woman's decision whether or not to terminate her pregnancy (Roe v. Wade), and that a State may not unduly burden the exercise of that fundamental right by regulations that prohibit or substantially limit access to the means of effectuating that decision (Doe v. Bolton). However, the issue of a woman's right to an abortion is far from settled. This report discusses the various legislative actions undertaken since 1973 to either nullify these rulings or hinder their effectuation.
Date: March 18, 1988
Creator: Carr, Thomas P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Article Packet: Background Information on Seatbelts in School Buses

Description: This notice from the Department of Transportation, denies a petition for rule-making filed by Physicians for Automotive Safety (PAS), asking this agency to mandate the installation of seat belts on all school buses. NHTSA believes that the currently mandated occupant protections in school buses provide an adequate level of safety protection, and that seat belts would not raise the level of protection for the occupants unless States and local jurisdictions were willing to take steps to ensure that the seat belts were actually used.
Date: October 17, 1983
Creator: Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Artificial Sweeteners

Description: This report discusses the artificial sweeteners have been a source of controversy in the U.S. for over 73 years. One of the factors driving these issues has been an interplay of a large consumer demand for low calorie sweeteners and controversy concerning certain safety standards set forth in the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FDCA.
Date: July 12, 1985
Creator: Taylor, Sarah E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Automobile Domestic Content Requirements

Description: In response to the lowest drop of American produced automobile sales in two decades and other related conditions, legislation has been introduced that would impose domestic (local) content ratios for automotive vehicles. These would require that cars and trucks sold in the United States in large quantities contain a certain percentage of American parts and labor.
Date: May 18, 1982
Creator: Nanto, Dick K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bank Failures: Recent Trends and Policy Options

Description: During the 1980s the U.S. banking industry has experienced a rapidly growing number of failures. Many factors have contributed to this trend including deregulation, technology, individual bank management, and economic conditions. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) handles insured bank failures. Congress has been monitoring the recent trend and is concerned with the FDIC’s ability to continue to perform its supervisory and insurance operations. The present situation, information on key factors affecting the banking industry, and the FDIC’s role when a bank fails is discussed in this report. The reference section of this issue brief contains a list of CRS products providing background on the FDIC and legislative issues relevant to the agency.
Date: July 14, 1987
Creator: Smale, Pauline
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Black and Hispanic Federal Judges: 1900 to Present

Description: This report shows that in recent years, attention has increasingly focused upon the minority composition of the Federal judiciary, in apparent response to concerns that judges appointed to the Federal bench should more compositely reflect the U.S. population they serve. Two of the larger U.S. subpopulations served by the Federal judiciary are blacks and Hispanics. Accordingly, this mini brief lists chronologically and cumulatively the appointments of blacks and Hispanics to the Federal bench, which includes the U.S.Supreme Court, Circuit Courts of Appeals, and District courts.
Date: August 9, 1983
Creator: Bailey, Dorothy J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Catastrophic Health Insurance: Comparison of the Major Provisions of the "Medicare Catastrophic Protection Act of 1987" (H.R. 2470, as passed by the House July 22, 1987) and the "Medicare Catastrophic Loss Prevention Act of 1987" (S. 1127, as passed by the Senate Finance Committee, July 27, 1987)

Description: Catastrophic Health Insurance: Comparison of the Major Provisions of the “Medicare Catastrophic Protection Act of 1987” (H.R. 2470, as passed by t h e House July 22, 1987) and the "MEDICARE CATASTROPHIC LOSS PREVENTION ACT OF 1987" (S. 1127, as reported by the S e n a t e Finance Committee, July 27, 1987)
Date: August 5, 1987
Creator: O'Sullivan, Jennifer
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Catastrophic Health Insurance: Medicare

Description: Catastrophic medical costs are broadly defined as large unpredictable health care expenses; these are usually associated with a major illness or serious injury. The absence of catastrophic health insurance protection for the elderly is the subject of concern in this report.
Date: September 1, 1987
Creator: O'Sullivan, Jennifer
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Compensation for Crime Victims

Description: This report discusses the growing interest in recent years in providing compensation for the innocent victims of violent crime through programs financed by the Federal and/or State Governments. At issue have been the general propriety, desirability, and feasibility, as well as the cost, of Federal support of such programs.
Date: April 27, 1984
Creator: Cavanagh, M. Suzanne
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Constitutional Conventions: Political and Legal Questions

Description: This report discusses the applications that have been passed by 32 of the necessary 34 State legislatures to convene a convention to propose an amendment prohibiting abortion. Because this process for amending the Constitution has never been used, several unresolved legal and policy questions arise governing the convening and the authority of such a convention.
Date: July 8, 1985
Creator: Huckabee, David C. & McCoy, Meredith
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Control of Illicit Traffic in Dangerous Drugs

Description: Suppression of illicit traffic is only one aspect of the general Federal Government effort to prevent the abuse of narcotics and other dangerous drug;, but in political significance it is undoubtedly paramount. Various approaches to the problem have been suggested and tried since the first explicitly anti-opium law was enacted in 1887.
Date: January 20, 1984
Creator: Hogan, Harry L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coordination of Federal Efforts to Control Illicit Drug Traffic

Description: This report discusses how best to coordinate the Federal government's multi-agency efforts to curb illicit traffic in dangerous drugs has once again become an issue of major interest to the Congress. Critics of the Reagan Administration's anti-drug program contend that it lacks an overall strategy and that it suffers from the absence of a central mechanism for the formulation of general policy as well as for the broad direction of operations
Date: November 23, 1983
Creator: Hogan, Harry L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Crime Control: Administration and Congressional Initiatives

Description: The Reagan Administration announced its major crime Control proposals in 1981, shortly after the final report from the Attorney General's Task Force on Violent Crimes, and reiterated support for significant changes in Crime control legislation in 1983. Congressional initiatives and modifications of those proposals continue interest and controversy in crime control matters in the 98th Congress.
Date: October 21, 1983
Creator: Kaiser, Frederick M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Deregulation of Transportation

Description: Transportation has been substantially deregulated over the last 5 years and there is talk of enacting legislation during the 98th Congress to further deregulate transportation or to restore some of the regulation that recent legislation has removed. This mini brief gives an overview of the deregulation already enacted into law, and some of the ideas being considered for further legislation. The brief also refers to some sources for further reading.
Date: November 17, 1983
Creator: Thompson, Stephen J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drug Control

Description: How to prevent the non-medical use of dependency-producing drugs has been a public policy concern for at least a century. A large part of the responsibility for controlling such substances has been assumed by the Federal Government. Historically based on decision to restrict availability through a system of close regulation, including selective prohibition, the current Federal anti-drugs strategy lives on activities and programs in five major areas: 1) regulation and other “enforcement” efforts; 2) support for international control and for control efforts of individual drug-producing and drug-transiting countries; 3) education and other prevention activities; 4 ) treatment and rehabilitation for drug-dependent persons; and ( 5 ) research on drugs , drug dependency, and prevention and treatment methods.
Date: September 30, 1988
Creator: Hogan, Harry L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drunk Driving and the National Driver Register

Description: At the 0.08 BAC level of alcohol, braking, steering, lane changing, and judgment are degraded and the driving performance of virtually all drivers is substantially impaired. During the debate on reauthorization of the federal surface transportation programs, an amendment that would require each state either to enact a 0.08 BAC law or face the loss of a portion of its Federal Highway Trust Fund monies passed the Senate and will likely be considered in the House. This proposal raises questions about the effectiveness and impacts of a 0.08 BAC law, the rights of states versus the federal government, and alternative ways to encourage the states to adopt stronger impaired driving countermeasures.
Date: August 5, 1985
Creator: Segal, Migdon
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Economic Analysis and Brief Legislative Overview of Usury Ceilings

Description: This report gives an economic analysis of usury ceilings, laws which set the maximum legal rate of interest to be charged on particular types of loans. It provides a brief overview of recent Federal l e g i s l a t i o n dealing with usury, with special emphasis on the Federal authorities mandated by P.L. 96-221, and the effectiveness of Federal preemption of State usury laws.
Date: July 2, 1981
Creator: Anderson, William
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department