Congressional Research Service Reports - 119 Matching Results

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The American Electoral College: Origins, Development, Proposals for Reform or Abolition

Description: This report is a comprehensive annotated bibliography of substantive books, monographs, articles, and documents treating the origins, evolution, and current operational characteristics of the U.S. electoral college system, as well as proposals for its reform or abolition. An explanatory introduction is provided for readers unfamiliar with the issue.
Date: June 2, 1979
Creator: Neale, Thomas H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Economic Analysis and Brief Legislative Overview of Usury Ceilings

Description: This report gives an economic analysis of usury ceilings, laws which set the maximum legal rate of interest to be charged on particular types of loans. It provides a brief overview of recent Federal l e g i s l a t i o n dealing with usury, with special emphasis on the Federal authorities mandated by P.L. 96-221, and the effectiveness of Federal preemption of State usury laws.
Date: July 2, 1981
Creator: Anderson, William
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Air Act Issues

Description: The 104th Congress enacted four bills modifying provisions of the Clean Air Act (CAA) and held numerous oversight hearings, as EPA and the states continued to implement requirements of the Act's 1990 Amendments. The Amendments set deadlines for issuance of new regulations and attainment of air quality standards.
Date: December 2, 1996
Creator: McCarthy, James E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fast-Track Trade Authority: Which Environmental Issues are "Directly Related to Trade"?

Description: This report discusses fast-track negotiating authority, which provides that Congress will consider trade agreements within mandatory deadlines, with limited debate, and without amendment. Trade negotiating objectives have generally been included in fast-track legislation to establish priorities for trade negotiators.
Date: October 2, 1997
Creator: Wilson, Arlene
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Endangered Species Act Amendments: An Analysis of S. 1180 and H.R. 2351

Description: Because of wide-spread interest in possible amendments to the Endangered Species Act (ESA), CRS has received numerous requests for an analysis and critique of S.1180 and H.R. 2351. This report analyzes those bills. HR. 2351 was introduced on July 31, 1997 and S. 1180 on September 16, 1997. Each bill is discussed under various topic headings. The Senate bill will be described first, since it has been reported.
Date: March 2, 1998
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela & Corn, M. Lynne
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Immigration Fundamentals

Description: This report describes the fundamentals of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), which was enacted in 1952 and significantly amended since, most recently by the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996.
Date: July 2, 1998
Creator: Vialet, Joyce
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IRS Reform: Innocent Spouse Rule

Description: Married couples filing joint tax returns are liable individually and as a couple for all taxes due on the return with a limited exemption for innocent spouses. This report discusses joint and several liability, which has been the subject of much criticism and calls for reform or elimination.
Date: July 2, 1998
Creator: Ripy, Thomas B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IRS Reform: Innocent Spouse Rule

Description: Married couples filing joint tax returns are liable individually and as a couple for all taxes due on the return with a limited exemption for innocent spouses. This report discusses joint and several liability, which has been the subject of much criticism and calls for reform or elimination.
Date: July 2, 1998
Creator: Ripy, Thomas B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Amtrak: Background and Selected Public Policy Issues

Description: This report discusses the financial troubles of Amtrak, its request for federal financial operating assistance, the Amtrack Reform and Accountability Act of 1997, Amtrak's Strategic Business Plan for FY1999-2002, Amtrak's operating losses, and other rail passenger services that might emerge in the absence of Amtrak, should the company fail.
Date: March 2, 1999
Creator: Thompson, Stephen J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Animal Agriculture: Issues for the 106th Congress

Description: This report discusses a variety of animal agriculture issues that generated debate during the 106th Congress, including low livestock prices, especially for hogs. Economic difficulties have revived questions such as the impacts of consolidation in the livestock industry, and the price effects of animal imports from Canada and Mexico. This report also discusses a number of legislative proposals to assist livestock producers and enforce sanitary and phytosanitary standards, as well as continuing trade disputes and negotiations with China, the European Union, New Zealand, and Australia.
Date: September 2, 1999
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

China's Accession to the World Trade Organization: Legal Issues

Description: The People's Republic of China (PRC) applied to resume membership in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1986 and continues to negotiate its accession to GATT's successor, the World Trade Organization (WTO). A country may join the WTO on terms agreed by the applicant and WTO Members if two-thirds of Members approve the country's accession agreement. A Member may "opt out" of WTO relations with another country by invoking Article XIII of the WTO Agreement, its "non-application" clause. The United States and the PRC agreed to bilateral terms for the PRC's accession in November 1999.
Date: June 2, 2000
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Abortion Law Development: A Brief Overview

Description: This report offers an overview of the development of abortion law from 1973 to the present. Beginning with a brief discussion of the historical background, the report analyzes the leading Supreme Court decisions over the past twenty-eight years, emphasizing particularly the landmark decisions in Roe and Doe, the Court’s shift in direction in Webster v. Reproductive Health Services and Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey, and the Court’s most recent decision on abortion, Stenberg v. Carhart. The Court’s decisions on the constitutionality of restricting public funding for abortion are also discussed.
Date: January 2, 2001
Creator: Lewis, Karen J. & Shimabukuro, Jon O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Air Act Issues in the 107th Congress

Description: Revisions to the air quality standards for ozone and particulates, promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency in 1997, may also command renewed attention in the 107th Congress. The standards were challenged in the courts, and implementation is currently in limbo, pending resolution of appeals to the Supreme Court. The Court heard oral arguments November 7, 2000, and a decision is expected in spring 2001. The decision is likely to stimulate congressional oversight, and perhaps legislation.
Date: January 2, 2001
Creator: McCarthy, James E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drug Control: International Policy and Options

Description: Over the past decade, worldwide production of illicit drugs has risen dramatically: opium and marijuana production has roughly doubled and coca production tripled. Street prices of cocaine and heroin have fallen significantly in the past 20 years, reflecting increased availability. Despite apparent national political resolve to deal with the drug problem, inherent contradictions regularly appear between U.S. anti-drug policy and other national policy goals and concerns. The mix of competing domestic and international pressures and priorities has produced an ongoing series of disputes within and between the legislative and executive branches concerning U.S. international drug policy. One contentious issue has been the Congressionally-mandated certification process, an instrument designed to induce specified drug-exporting countries to prioritize or pay more attention to the fight against narcotics businesses.
Date: November 2, 2001
Creator: Perl, Raphael F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Water Act Issues in the 107th Congress

Description: Key water quality issues that may face the 107th Congress include: actions to implement existing provisions of the Clean Water Act (CWA), whether additional steps are necessary to achieve overall goals of the Act, and the appropriate federal role in guiding and paying for clean water activities. Legislative prospects for comprehensively amending the Act have for some time stalled over whether and exactly how to change the law. If clean water issues receive attention in the 107th Congress, consideration of specific issues will depend in part on the CWA policy agenda of the new Bush Administration and on priorities of the key committees that have major jurisdiction over the Act.
Date: January 2, 2002
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Air Act Issues in the 107th Congress

Description: In the 107th Congress, the most prominent air quality issue has been whether state and federal regulations designed to protect air quality are having a negative impact on energy production, and, if so, whether legislation should be enacted to reform such regulations. The early discussion focused primarily on California, but with the release of the Administration’s energy policy recommendations in May 2001 and subsequent congressional action, attention shifted to issues more national in scope.
Date: June 2, 2002
Creator: McCarthy, James E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Child Care Issues in the 107th Congress

Description: This report includes recent developments in federal child care programs and tax provisions. The report discusses several federal programs that support child care or related services, primarily for low-income working families. In addition, the tax code includes provisions specifically targeted to assist families with child care expenses. The report presents the legislative activity in the 107th Congress in regard to child care legislature and provisions.
Date: July 2, 2002
Creator: Gish, Melinda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department