Congressional Research Service Reports - Browse


Monopoly and Monopolization - Fundamental But Separate Concepts in U.S. Antitrust Law

Description: This report illustrates the difference between the concepts of “monopoly” and “monopolization” by touching on the monopoly/monopolization thinking in the Antitrust Division of the Department of Justice (DoJ) and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), as illustrated in (1) statements on merger enforcement made by recent antitrust enforcement officials (generally indicative of the agencies’ concerns about competitive conditions and the effect of various market transactions), (2) the 1992 Horizontal Merger Guidelines 2 and (3) some observations on the Government actions against the Microsoft and Intel Corporations.
Date: August 20, 2001
Creator: Rubin, Janice E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Employer Liability Provisions in Selected Patient Protection Bills

Description: In the various patient protection bills introduced in the 106th (H.R. 5628, S.Amdt. 3694, H.R. 2990) and to date in the 107th (H.R. 526, H.R. 2315, H.R. 2563, S. 889, S. 1052), Congress has attempted to address the issue of employer liability by limiting liability to certain persons or circumstances. This report provides an overview of the employer liability provisions of selected bills from the 106th and 107th Congress.
Date: August 21, 2001
Creator: Welborn, Angie A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

General Overview of United States Antitrust Law

Description: This Report briefly summarizes (1) the primary United States antitrust statutes, and (2) some of the activities which are generally considered to be violations of those laws. There is also some reference to the prohibition against unfair competition and the “unfairness” jurisdiction of the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). The laws discussed do not constitute all of the statutes which may be applicable to, or implicated in antitrust issues, but rather, are those which are most often utilized.
Date: June 18, 2001
Creator: Rubin, Janice E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Biological and Chemical Weapons: Criminal Sanctions and Federal Regulations

Description: Various federal regulations and criminal sanctions apply to biological and chemical weapons. Some of the provisions are broadly drafted, covering biological and chemical weapons as well as other controlled material and technology. Some focus on biological and chemical weapons as such. Recent anti-terrorism legislation, Public Law 107-56, amended many of these provisions, broadening the scope criminal sanctions relating to the use of biological and chemical weapons and materials. This report outlines provisions criminalizing certain uses of biological and chemical weapons, and references other relevant domestic and international material.
Date: September 13, 2001
Creator: Jennings, Christopher Alan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Abortion Law Development: A Brief Overview

Description: This report offers an overview of the development of abortion law from 1973 to the present. Beginning with a brief discussion of the historical background, the report analyzes the leading Supreme Court decisions over the past twenty-eight years, emphasizing particularly the landmark decisions in Roe and Doe, the Court’s shift in direction in Webster v. Reproductive Health Services and Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey, and the Court’s most recent decision on abortion, Stenberg v. Carhart. The Court’s decisions on the constitutionality of restricting public funding for abortion are also discussed.
Date: January 2, 2001
Creator: Lewis, Karen J. & Shimabukuro, Jon O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

"Terrorism" and Related Terms in Statute and Regulation: Selected Language

Description: Congress is considering revised definitions of “terrorism” and related terms in the context of the proposed “Anti-Terrorism Act of 2001.” While the proposed definitions relate to criminal law and immigration law, hundreds of other federal statutes and regulations already define “terrorism” and related terms in a variety of other contexts. However, these statutes and regulations ultimately refer to an extremely small set of statutory definitions, current criminal law and immigration definitions being among them. This report provides the current text of these fundamental definitions. The report will be updated as action on new antiterrorism law proceeds.
Date: September 26, 2001
Creator: Martin, Elizabeth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Export Administration Act: Controversy and Prospects

Description: In the 107th Congress, renewed efforts are underway to enact a permanent replacement for the Export Administration Act of 1979 (EAA), temporarily reauthorized in the 106th Congress until August 20, 2001. The Export Administration Act of 2001 (S. 149) was introduced on January 23, 2001. Hearings were held by the Senate Banking Committee, and the bill was reported for consideration by the full Senate by a vote of 19-1 to March 22, 2001. The difficulty in passing a comprehensive rewrite of the EAA has resulted, in part, from the continuing tension between national security and commercial concerns. Industry groups, proponents of heightened export controls, the Administration, and Congress have all participated in the reauthorization debate.
Date: March 26, 2001
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Campaign Finance in the 2000 Federal Elections: Overview and Estimates of the Flow of Money

Description: Federal election law regulates money in federal elections through a ban on union and corporate treasury money, limits on contributions, and uniform, periodic disclosure of receipts and expenditures. Money raised and spent under these laws to directly influence federal elections is commonly known as hard money. Money that is largely outside the restrictions and prohibitions of the federal regulatory framework–but raised and spent in a manner suggesting possible intent to affect federal elections–is commonly known as soft money.
Date: March 16, 2001
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department