Congressional Research Service Reports - 607 Matching Results

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Business and Labor Spending in U.S. Elections

Description: Federal election law has long prohibited corporate and union spending in federal elections, but distinctions in statutes and judicial rulings have opened avenues by which these groups have been able to spend money in the electoral process. Business groups make particular use of political action committee (PAC) donations to candidates and soft money donations to parties. Unions made prominent use of issue advocacy in 1996, but labor’s political strength lies in exempt activity communications with members. This report explains these tools and their use in today’s elections.
Date: October 28, 1997
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Business and Labor Spending in U.S. Elections

Description: Federal election law has long prohibited corporate and union spending in federal elections, but distinctions in statutes and judicial rulings have opened avenues by which these groups have been able to spend money in the electoral process. Business groups make particular use of political action committee (PAC) donations to candidates and soft money donations to parties. Unions made prominent use of issue advocacy in 1996, but labor’s political strength lies in exempt activity communications with members. This report explains these tools and their use in today’s elections.
Date: October 28, 1997
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Constitutional Analysis of Suspicionless Drug Testing Requirements for the Receipt of Governmental Benefits

Description: This report provides an overview of the Fourth Amendment in order to effectively evaluate the constitutionality of laws requiring suspicionless drug tests to receive governmental benefits. It then reviews five Supreme Court decisions that have evaluated these programs. The report concludes with a synthesis of the various factors that likely will be important to a future court's assessment of the constitutionality of these laws.
Date: March 6, 2015
Creator: Carpenter, David H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Constitutional Analysis of Suspicionless Drug Testing Requirements for the Receipt of Governmental Benefits

Description: This report gives an overview of the issues related to federal or state laws that condition the initial or ongoing receipt of governmental benefits on passing drug tests. These regulations are vulnerable to constitutional challenge, most often due to issues of personal privacy and Fourth Amendment protections against "unreasonable searches."
Date: January 29, 2014
Creator: Carpenter, David H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Constitutional Analysis of Suspicionless Drug Testing Requirements for the Receipt of Governmental Benefits

Description: This report gives an overview of the issues related to federal or state laws that condition the initial or ongoing receipt of governmental benefits on passing drug tests. These regulations are vulnerable to constitutional challenge, most often due to issues of personal privacy and Fourth Amendment protections against "unreasonable searches."
Date: January 19, 2012
Creator: Carpenter, David H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Automatic Cost of Living Adjustments: Some Economic and Practical Considerations

Description: This report looks at how automatic cost-of-living adjustments (COLAs) influence the budget and identifies major programs that have indexing provisions. It also explains what price indexes attempt to measure and discusses some of their weaknesses. Finally, it points out some practical things to keep in mind when establishing an indexing provision.
Date: January 11, 2010
Creator: Cashell, Brian W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Emergency Response: Civil Liability of Volunteer Health Professionals

Description: This report discusses the patchwork of federal and state laws that operate to protect volunteers, which can include volunteer health professionals (VHPs), and those laws that trigger liability protection only for VHPs — with a focus on some of the midwestern states in addition to the Gulf region.
Date: January 19, 2011
Creator: Chu, Vivian S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Tort Claims Act

Description: The Federal Tort Claims Act is the statute by which the United States authorizes tort suits to be brought against itself. With exceptions, it makes the United States liable for injuries caused by the negligent or wrongful act or omission of any federal employee acting within the scope of his employment, in accordance with the law of the state where the act or omission occurred. This report discusses, among other things, the application of the Feres doctrine to suits for injuries caused by medical malpractice in the military, the prohibition of suits by victims of atomic testing, Supreme Court cases interpreting the discretionary function exception, the extent to which federal employees may be held liable for torts they commit in the scope of their employment, and the government contractor defense to products liability design defect suits.
Date: April 27, 2009
Creator: Cohen, Henry & Cohen, Henry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Apprenticeship in the United States: Frequently Asked Questions

Description: This Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) report focuses on the Registered Apprenticeship system, through which the U.S. Department of Labor (or a recognized state apprenticeship agency) certifies a program as meeting certain federal requirements related to duration, intensity, and benefit to the apprentice. The report also discusses federal programs for which supporting apprenticeship activities is an allowable, but not required, use of funds.
Date: August 25, 2015
Creator: Collins, Benjamin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Apprenticeship in the United States: Frequently Asked Questions

Description: This report answers frequently asked questions about apprenticeship and the federal activities that support this training approach. Apprenticeship is a job training strategy that combines on-the-job training with related instruction, typically provided in a classroom setting.
Date: January 29, 2016
Creator: Collins, Benjamin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Right to Work Laws: Legislative Background and Empirical Research

Description: This report is divided into two parts. The first part discusses right to work (RTW) laws themselves. It provides a brief legislative history on the federal role in the regulation of unions, a summary of the origin and development of RTW laws, a discussion of recent events at the state level, and federal legislation related to RTW. The second part of the report reviews the varied empirical research on the effects of RTW laws. Specifically, it will discuss the mixed evidence indicating relationships between RTW laws and other economic outcomes.
Date: December 6, 2012
Creator: Collins, Benjamin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trade Adjustment Assistance for Workers

Description: This report provides background on the Trade Adjustment Assistance for Workers (TAA) program, which provides federal assistance to workers who have been adversely affected by foreign trade. The report discusses TAA eligibility and benefits as set by the Trade Adjustment Assistance Extension Act of 2011; describes how the program is funded and administered; and presents data on recent application activity and benefit usage.
Date: March 5, 2014
Creator: Collins, Benjamin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trade Adjustment Assistance for Workers

Description: This report provides background on the Trade Adjustment Assistance for Workers (TAA) program, which provides federal assistance to workers who have been adversely affected by foreign trade. It was most recently authorized by the Trade Adjustment Assistance Extension Act of 2011 (TAAEA; Title II of P.L. 112-40). The report discusses TAA eligibility and benefits as set by TAAEA; describes how the program is funded and administered; and presents data on recent application activity and benefit usage.
Date: July 11, 2012
Creator: Collins, Benjamin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trade Adjustment Assistance for Workers: Reauthorization Proposals in the 114th Congress, In Brief

Description: This report is designed to provide assistance in considering Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) for Workers reauthorization efforts in the 114th Congress. It begins with background information on TAA and a summary of recent legislation. It then presents a table that compares a recent reauthorization proposal with provisions in current and prior law.
Date: April 28, 2015
Creator: Collins, Benjamin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pay Equity Legislation

Description: This report gives an overview of "pay equity," a term referring to the fact that women as a group are paid less than men. It includes the history of pay equity, legal and legislative background, and recent legislation.
Date: June 1, 2012
Creator: Collins, Benjamin & Feder, Jody
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pay Equity: Legislative and Legal Developments

Description: This report discusses pay equity litigation, including Wal-Mart Stores v. Dukes, a case in which the Supreme Court rejected class action status for current and former female Wal-Mart employees who allege that the company has engaged in pay discrimination.
Date: November 22, 2013
Creator: Collins, Benjamin & Feder, Jody
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department