Congressional Research Service Reports - 245 Matching Results

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Joint Employment and the Save Local Business Act

Description: This report discusses the proposed "Save Local Business Act" in the House and its provisions and implications for employers and employees in businesses where unions exist. The National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) broadening of the definition of what constituted a joint employer in the case of Browning-Ferris Industries of California led to resist by some in the business community and the "Save Local Business Act" seeks to restore the former more narrow definition of joint employers.
Date: November 15, 2017
Creator: Shimabukuro, Jon O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The U.S. Science and Engineering Workforce: Recent, Current, and Projected Employment, Wages, and Unemployment

Description: This report provides employment, wage, and unemployment information for the computer occupations, mathematical occupations, engineers, life scientists, physical scientists, and science and engineering (S&E) management occupations, as follows: The section on "Current Employment, Wages, and Unemployment" provides a statistical snapshot of occupational employment, wage, and unemployment data for the S&E workforce in 2016 (the latest year for which data are available). The section on "Recent Trends in Employment, Wages, and Unemployment" provides a perspective on how S&E employment, wages, and unemployment changed during the period 2012-2016. The section on "Employment Projections, 2016-2026" provides an analysis of projections by the Bureau of Labor Statistics for how the number employed in S&E occupations is expected to change during the 2016-2026 period, as well as how many openings will be created by growth, labor force exits, and occupational transfers. A final section, "Concluding Observations," provides stakeholder perspectives that Congress may consider as it seeks to ensure that the United States has an adequate S&E workforce to meet the demands of the 21st century.
Date: November 2, 2017
Creator: Sargent, John F., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

H-2A and H-2B Temporary Worker Visas: Policy and Related Issues

Description: This report covers the H-2A agricultural guest worker program and the H-2B nonagricultural guest worker program. It explores the statutory and regulatory provisions that govern each program, focusing in particular on the much-debated labor certification process. It discusses past and present legislative efforts to reform the H-2A and H-2B programs and to create new guest worker visas, and identifies and analyzes key policy considerations to help inform future congressional action.
Date: May 10, 2017
Creator: Bruno, Andorra
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Federal Minimum Wage: In Brief

Description: This report discuses the federal minimum wage and the various groups of workers who are covered and not covered by minimum wage requirements. Arguments for and against raising the federal minimum wage are also discussed.
Date: June 2, 2017
Creator: Bradley, David H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Human Trafficking: New Global Estimates of Forced Labor and Modern Slavery

Description: This report discusses a new report by the International Labor Organization (ILO) and the Walk Free Foundation that estimates that 40.3 million people worldwide were victims of modern slavery (including forced labor run by individuals and governments, forced marriages, and sex trafficking) which used a new methodology that combined multiple data sources and statistical probability calculations. A brief overview of the findings, past reports and variance between State Department Trafficking in Persons (TIP reports and other reports such as this one, and varying definitions of the terms modern slavery, human trafficking, and forced labor are discussed. Current bills to reauthorize the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) in Congress are also discussed.
Date: October 18, 2017
Creator: Rosen, Liana W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Workers' Compensation: Overview and Issues

Description: This report discusses workers' compensation in the United States beginning with a brief history of its origins and its elements. Costs, federal oversight of state programs, and Texas and Oklahoma's noncompulsory workers' compensation programs are also discussed.
Date: April 20, 2017
Creator: Szymendara, Scott D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Department of Labor's 2016 Fiduciary Rule: Background and Issues

Description: This report discusses fiduciary standard with respect to his or her advice, an individual had to, which include: (1) make recommendations on investing in, purchasing, or selling securities or other property, or give advice as to the value (2) on a regular basis (3) pursuant to a mutual understanding that the advice (4) will serve as a primary basis for investment decisions, and (5) will be individualized to the particular needs of the plan regarding such matters as, among other things, investment policies or strategy, overall portfolio composition, or diversification of plan investments.
Date: July 3, 2017
Creator: Topoleski, John J. & Shorter, Gary
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Job Creation in the Manufacturing Revival

Description: This report examines the current status of the manufacturing sector in the U.S., which is a subject of ongoing interest in Congress. After rebounding from the 2007-09 recession, U.S. manufacturing output has grown little since the second half of 2014 while employment in the U.S. sector has been flat. These trends defy expectations that forces such as higher labor costs, heightened concern about the risk of disruptions to complex supply chains, and the development of inexpensive domestic supplies of natural gas.
Date: May 5, 2017
Creator: Levinson, Marc
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Manufacturing in International Perspective

Description: This report is designed to inform the debate over the health of U.S. manufacturing through a series of charts and tables that depict the position of the United States relative to other countries according to various metrics. Understanding which trends in manufacturing reflect factors that may be unique to the United States and which are related to broader changes in technology or consumer preferences may be helpful in formulating policies intended to aid firms or workers engaged in manufacturing activity.
Date: January 18, 2017
Creator: Levinson, Marc
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

How Much Slack Remains in the Labor Market?

Description: The amount of "slack" in the labor market--jobless or underemployed workers--has consequences for the appropriate stance of monetary policy, the future path of the budget deficit, and counter-cyclical spending on programs such as unemployment insurance. This report briefly examines this concept in the context of the current economy.
Date: August 5, 2016
Creator: Labonte, Marc & Stupak, Jeffrey M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Workers' Compensation: Overview and Issues

Description: This report discusses workers' compensation, which provides cash and medical benefits to workers who are injured or become ill in the course of their employment and provides benefits to the survivors of workers killed on the job. Benefits are provided without regard to fault and are the exclusive remedy for workplace injuries, illnesses, and deaths.
Date: August 3, 2016
Creator: Szymendera, Scott D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trafficking in Persons and U.S. Foreign Policy Responses in the 114th Congress

Description: This report provides an overview of recent global trends and U.S. foreign policy responses to address human trafficking. The report focuses in particular on efforts conducted by the State Department's Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (J/TIP) and the President's Interagency Task Force (PITF) on human trafficking, as well as discussion of the 2016 TIP Report.
Date: August 5, 2016
Creator: Rosen, Liana W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Numerical Limits on Permanent Employment-Based Immigration: Analysis of the Per-country Ceilings

Description: The report opens with brief explanations of the employment-based preference categories and the per-country ceilings governing annual admissions of lawful permanent residents (LPRs). It continues with a statistical analysis of the pending caseload of approved employment-based LPR petitions and concludes with a set of legislative options to revise per-country ceilings that are meant to serve as springboards for further discussions.
Date: July 28, 2016
Creator: Argueta, Carla N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Declining Dynamism in the U.S. Labor Market

Description: This report discusses certain measures of the U.S. labor market "dynamism" or "fluidity"--including job reallocation, worker churn, and geographic labor mobility-- which some observers note have been declining for the past 20 years or more.
Date: June 15, 2016
Creator: Perkins, David W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA)

Description: This report contains information on how to ascertain if an individual is eligible for Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA) benefits, which are available only to those individuals who have become unemployed as a direct result of a declared major disaster. DUA is funded through the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and is administered by the Department of Labor (DOL) through each state's UC agency.
Date: June 6, 2016
Creator: Whittaker, Julie M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

OSHA State Plans: In Brief, with Examples from California and Arizona

Description: This report examines various state plans under the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSH Act), which authorizes states to establish their own occupational safety and health plans and preempt standards established and enforced by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). OSHA must approve state plans if they are "at least as effective" as OSHA's standards and enforcement. The report provides specific examples from California and Arizona
Date: June 3, 2016
Creator: Szymendera, Scott D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Buy American Act--Preferences for "Domestic" Supplies: In Brief

Description: This report discusses the Buy American Act of 1933, which is the earliest and arguably the best known of various statutes regarding federal procurement of domestic products. The act attempts to protect U.S. businesses and labor by restricting the acquisition and use of end products or construction materials that are not "domestic."
Date: April 26, 2016
Creator: Manuel, Kate M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pay Equity: Legislative and Legal Developments

Description: This report begins by presenting data on earnings for male and female workers and by discussing explanations that have been offered for the differences in earnings. It next discusses the major laws directed at eliminating sex-based wage discrimination as well as relevant federal court cases. The report closes with a description of pay equity legislation that has been considered or enacted by Congress in recent years.
Date: May 20, 2016
Creator: Feder, Jody & Collins, Benjamin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Manufacturing in International Perspective

Description: This report is designed to inform the debate over the health of U.S. manufacturing through a series of charts and tables that depict the position of the United States relative to other countries according to various metrics. Understanding which trends in manufacturing reflect factors that may be unique to the United States and which are related to broader changes in technology or consumer preferences may be helpful in formulating policies intended to aid firms or workers engaged in manufacturing activity.
Date: April 26, 2016
Creator: Levinson, Marc
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Federal Employees' Compensation Act (FECA): Workers' Compensation for Federal Employees

Description: This report focuses on several key policy issues facing the Federal Employees' Compensation Act (FECA) program, including the disproportionate share of claims and program costs attributed to postal workers, the payment of FECA benefits after retirement age, the overall level of FECA disability benefits as compared with those offered by the states, and the administration of the FECA program.
Date: March 18, 2016
Creator: Szymendera, Scott D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Unemployment Insurance: Legislative Issues in the 114th Congress

Description: The 114th Congress continues to consider many issues related to unemployment insurance (UI) programs: Unemployment Compensation (UC), the temporary, now-expired Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC08), and Extended Benefits (EB). This report gives a brief overview of the UI programs that may provide benefits to eligible unemployed workers, and briefly summarizes the President's budget proposal for FY2017.
Date: March 22, 2016
Creator: Whittaker, Julie M. & Isaacs, Katelin P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

State Minimum Wages: An Overview

Description: This report begins with a brief discussion of Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) minimum wage coverage. It then provides a summary of state minimum wage laws, followed by an examination of rates and mechanisms of adjustments in states with minimum wage levels above the FLSA rate. The report also discusses the interaction of federal and state minimum wages over time.
Date: February 3, 2016
Creator: Bradley, David H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department